Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
May 2006
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    References

    Overview

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    Chapter 1

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      LallSomik V. and TayeMengistae.2005. “The Impact of Business Environment and Economic Geography on Plant-Level Productivity: An Analysis of Indian Industry.”Policy Research Working Paper 3664World BankWashington, DC.

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    Chapter 2

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      BanerjeeAbhijitAngusDeaton and EstherDuflo.2004. “Wealth, Health, and Health Services in Rural Rajasthan.”AER Papers and Proceedings94 (2): 32630.

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      BrunsBarbaraAlainMingat and RamahatraRakotomalala.2003. Achieving Universal Primary Education by 2015: A Chance for Every Child. Washington, DC: World Bank.

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      BulírAles and A. JavierHamann.2003. “Aid Volatility: An Empirical Assessment.”IMF Working Paper 01/50International Monetary FundWashington, DC.

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      BulírAles and A. JavierHamann.2005. “Volatility of Development Aid: From the Frying Pan into the Fire?”Paper presented at the Seminar on Foreign Aid and Macroeconomic Management, organized by the IMF Institute and African DepartmentMarch14–15MaputoMozambique.

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      Di TellaR. and W. D.Savedoffed.2001. Diagnosis Corruption. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.

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      PandeyPriyanka.2005. “Strengthening Education Accountability in Indian States.”South Asia RegionWorld Bank. Decemberprocessed.

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      SavedoffWilliam and KarenHussman.2006. “Why Are Health Systems Prone to Corruption?” In Corruption and Health pp. 416. Transparency International.

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    Chapter 3

      AgenorPierre-RichardNihalBayraktarEmmanuel PintoMoreira and Karim ElAynaoui.2005. “Achieving the MDGs in SSA: A Macroeconomic Monitoring Framework.”Policy Research Working Paper 3750World BankWashington, DC.

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      DollarDavid and VictoriaLevin.2005. “The Increasing Selectivity of Foreign Aid, 1984–2003.”Draft.

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      HertelT. and L.A.Wintersed.2006. Poverty and the WTO: Impacts of the Doha Development Agenda. Washington, DC and New York: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan.

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      MartensBertin.2005. “Why Do Aid Agencies Exist?”Development Policy Review23 (6): 64363.

      MossTodd and ArvindSubramanian.2005. “After the Big Push? Fiscal and Institutional Implications of Large Aid Increases.”Working Paper 71Center for Global DevelopmentWashington, DC.

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      MossToddDavidRoodman and ScottStandley.2005. “The Global War on Terror and U.S. Development Assistance: USAID Allocation by Country, 1998–2005.”Working Paper 62Center for Global DevelopmentWashington, DC.

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      OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2005a. “Baselines and Suggested Targets for the 12 Indicators of Progress—Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness.”Paris.

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      OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2005b. “A Proposal For Monitoring Resource Flows to Marginalized States.”DAC MeetingParisNovember15.

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      OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2005c. “The Development Effectiveness of Food Aid: Does Tying Matter?”Paris.

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      OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2006c. “Aid Flows Top $100 billion in 2005.”Press Release.

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      Overseas Development Institute. 2005. “From Pledges to Cash—Where Is the Extra $25 Billion a Year (2010) for Africa Coming from and Going to? A Consistency Check and Emerging International Architecture Implications.”Draft Issues PaperU.K. Department for International Development.

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      PatrickStewart.2006. “Weak States and Global Threats: Assessing Evidence of Spillovers.”Working Paper 73Center for Global DevelopmentWashington, DC.

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      RajanRaghuram and ArvindSubramanian.2005a. “Aid and Growth: What Does the Cross-Country Evidence Really Show?”Working Paper WP/05/127International Monetary FundWashington, DC.

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      RajanRaghuram and ArvindSubramanian.2005b. “What Undermines Aid’s Impact on Growth?”Working Paper WP/05/126International Monetary FundWashington, DC.

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      RogersonAndrew.2005. “Aid Harmonisation and Alignment: Bridging the Gaps between Reality and the Paris Reform Agenda.”Development Policy Review23 (5): 5312.

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      RoodmanDavid.2005. “An Index of Donor Performance.”CGD Working Paper 67Washington, DC.

      RoodmanDavid.2006. “Aid Project Proliferation and Absorptive Capacity.”Working Paper 75Center for Global DevelopmentWashington, DC.

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      TimmerC. Peter.2005. “Food Aid: Doing Well by Doing Good.”Center for Global DevelopmentWashington, DC.

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      World Bank. 2005b. Global Economic Prospects 2006: Equity and Development. Washington, DC: World Bank.

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    Chapter 4

      ADB (Asian Development Bank). 2004. “Action Plan on Managing for Development Results.”

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      BediTaraAlineCoudouelMarcusCoxMarkusGoldstein and NigelThornton.Forthcoming. “Beyond the Numbers: Understanding the Institutions for Monitoring Poverty Reduction Strategies.”

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      DollarDavid and VictoriaLevin.2004. “The Increasing Selectivity of Foreign Aid, 1984–2002.”World BankWashington, DC.

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      World Bank. 2004. “Implementation of the Agenda on Managing for Results: Progress Report and Annexes.”

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    Part II Introduction

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      SvenssonJakob.2005. “Eight Questions about Corruption.”Journal of Economic Perspectives19(3) (Summer): 1942.

      SwaroopVinaya and Andrew SunilRajkumar.2002. “Public Spending and Outcomes: Does Governance Matter?”World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 2840May7.

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      YangDean.2005. “Integrity for Hire: An Analysis of a Widespread Program for Combating Customs Corruption.”Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.

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    Chapter 5

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      GelbAlanBrianNgo and XiaoYe.2004. “Implementing Performance-Based Aid in Africa: The Country Policy and Institutional Assessment.”World Bank Africa Region Working Paper Series #77November.

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      GrayCherylJoelHellman and RandiRyterman.2004. Anticorruption in Transition 2—Corruption in Enterprise-State Interactions in Europe and Central Asia 1999–2002.

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      GrindleMerilee.2004. “Good Enough Governance: Poverty Reduction and Reform in Developing Countries.”Governance17(4) (October): 52548.

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      KaufmannDanielAartKraay and MassimoMastruzzi.2005. “Governance Matters IV: Governance Indicators for 1996–2004.”World Bank Policy Research Paper Series # 3630.

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    Chapter 6

      AdseràAlíciaCarlosBoix and MarkPayne.2003. “Are You Being Served? Political Accountability and Governmental Performance.”Journal of Law Economics and Organization19 (October): 44590.

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      BarkanJoelLadipoAdamolekun and YongmeiZhou.2004. “Emerging Legislatures: Institutions of Horizontal Accountability.” In Building State Capacity in Africaed.BrianLevy and SahrKpundeh.Washington, DC: World Bank Institute.

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      BellverAna and DanielKaufmann.2005. “Transparenting Transparency.”Mimeo, World BankWashington, DCSeptember. Available at www.worldbank.org/wbi/governance/wp-transparency.html.

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      BesleyTimothy and RobinBurgess.2002. “The Political Economy of Government Responsiveness: Theory and Evidence from India.”Quarterly Journal of Economics117 (4): 141551.

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      CarothersThomas.1999. Aiding Democracy Abroad. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

      CarothersThomas.2002. “The End of the Transition Paradigm.”Journal of Democracy13 (1): 521.

      Center for Public Integrity. 2004. “Global Integrity Methodology.”Memo, Center for Public IntegrityWashington, DC. Available at www.publicintegrity.org/ga.

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      DFID (U.K. Department for International Development). 2005. A Platform Approach to Improving Public Financial Management. Available at www.dfid.gov.uk/aboutdfid/organisation/pfma/pfma-briefingplatform.pdf.

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      Di TellaRafael and ErnestoSchargrodsky.2003. “The Role of Wages and Auditing during a Crackdown on Corruption in the City of Buenos Aires.”Journal of Law and Economics46 (1): 595619.

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    Chapter 7

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    Annex

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    Statistical Annex
    A.Millennium Development Goals
    Goal 1:Poverty (US$1 a day headcount ratio, %)
    Share of consumption to poorest quintile (%)
    Goal 2:Primary education completion (gross intake to final primary grade, %)
    Secondary enrollment (gross, %)
    Goal 3:Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary school (%)
    Women in nonagricultural sector (% of total nonagricultural employment)
    Goal 4:Child mortality (under-5 mortality rate per 1,000)
    Measles immunization (% of children ages 12–23 months)
    Goal 5:Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)
    Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)
    Goal 6:HIV prevalence (% of population ages 15–49)
    Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100,000 people)
    Goal 7:Access to an improved water source (% of population)
    Access to improved sanitation facilities (% of population)
    Goal 8:Fixed-line and mobile phone subscribers (per 1,000 people)
    Internet users (per 1,000 people)
    B.Measures of Governance Performance
    Overall governance performance
    Control of Corruption (KK, TI, ICS)
    Policy outcome (CPIA cluster A–C average)
    Aggregate public institutions (CPIA cluster D)
    Business transactions costs (DB, ICS)
    Bureaucratic capability
    Budget and financial management (CPIA 13)
    Public administration (CPIA 15)
    Checks and balances institutions
    Voice and accountability (KK)
    Justice and rule of law (KK, CPIA 12)
    Executive constraints (Polity IV)
    C.Overall Trade Restrictiveness Index (OTRI)
    D.Official Development Assistance (ODA)
    Net Official Development Assistance by DAC and non-DAC Countries
    Net Official Development Assistance Receipts
    CPIA: Country Policy and Institutional Assessment; DB: Doing Business indicators; ICS: Investment Climate Surveys; KK: Kaufmann and Kraay; OTRI: Overall Trade Restrictiveness Index; TI: Transparency International.
    CPIA: Country Policy and Institutional Assessment; DB: Doing Business indicators; ICS: Investment Climate Surveys; KK: Kaufmann and Kraay; OTRI: Overall Trade Restrictiveness Index; TI: Transparency International.
    TABLE A.1Millennium Development Goals
    Goal 1

    Eradicate extreme poverty
    Goal 2

    Achieve universal primary education
    Goal 3

    Promote gender equality
    Goal 4

    Reduce child mortality
    Goal 5

    Improve maternal health
    Goal 6

    Combat HIV/AIDS and other diseases
    Goal 7

    Ensure environmental sustainability
    Goal 8

    Develop a global partnership for development (new technologies)
    Poverty (US$1 a day headcount ratio, %)Share of consumption to poorest quintile (%)Primary education completion (gross intake to final primary grade, %)Secondary enrollment (gross, %)Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary school (%)Women in nonagricultural sector (% of total nonagricultural employment)Child mortality (under-5 mortality rate per 1,000)Measles immunization (% of children ages 12–23 months)Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)HIV prevalence (% of population ages 15-19)Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100,000 people)Access to an improved water source (% of population)Access to improved sanitation facilities (% of population)Fixed-line and mobile phone subscribers (per 1,000 people)Internet users (per 1,000 people)
    1998–2004a1998–2004a2001–4a2004200420032004200420002000–4a200320042002200220042004
    Afghanistan......1334....61..14..333138....
    Albania<29.199789740.319965598..22978943824
    Algeria....94819915.54081140960.154879221526
    Angola......17....260641,700453.925950302911
    Argentina7.03.21029910347.6189582990.743....579133
    Armenia<28.51079110347.0329255970.178928426050
    Australia....1001549848.96938..0.161001001,359646
    Austria..8.6..1009644.55744..0.3141001001,438477
    Azerbaijan<212.296839748.590989484<0.175775533349
    Bangladesh36.09.0735110624.2777738013..2297548372
    Belarus<28.51019410055.9119935100..60100..424163
    Belgium..8.5..16010644.458210..0.213....1,333403
    Benin30.97.4492671..15285850661.98768323812
    Bhutan............808742037..10762705322
    Bolivia23.21.5100899836.56964420670.1217854526939
    Bosnia and Herzegovina..9.5........158831100<0.153989350758
    Botswana....927410247.0116901009437.3670954139634
    Brazil7.52.611111010346.93499260960.7608975587120
    Bulgaria<28.797999752.2158132990.136100100966283
    Burkina Faso27.26.930127615.2192781,000381.81915112374
    Burundi54.65.1331282..190751,000256.03437936123
    Cambodia....82268552.614180450322.65103416403
    Cameroon17.15.6724487..14964730625.517963487410
    Canada..7.2..10510049.26956980.351001001,053626
    Central African Republic......12....193351,1004413.53227527182
    Chad....301558..200561,100144.8279348146
    Chile<23.397889937.3895311000.3169592799267
    China16.64.7100709939.5318456960.1101774449973
    Hong Kong, China....111859546.9........0.175....1,733506
    Colombia7.02.5947510448.82192130860.750928642780
    Comoros....503584..707348062..4694232614
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of......23....20564990614.23664629111
    Congo, Rep. of....663287..10865510..4.93774691029
    Costa Rica2.23.9926810139.5138843980.6149792533235
    Côte d’Ivoire14.85.243256820.219449690687.039384408617
    Croatia<28.3918810146.37968100<0.141....996293
    Cuba....93939837.7799331000.11091987513
    Czech Republic....1029710145.849791000.111....1,392470
    Denmark....10312710348.35965..0.28100..1,599696
    Djibouti....292275..12660730612.973480504312
    Dominican Republic2.53.9916810534.93279150981.091935739691
    Ecuador17.73.31016110041.12699130..0.3131867247248
    Egypt, Arab Rep. of3.18.693879421.636978469<0.127986823554
    EI Salvador19.02.784609831.12893150920.754826340287
    Eritrea....44287335.08284630282.72715791412
    Estonia<26.71039610051.5896631001.146....1,260497
    Ethiopia23.09.1512873..1667185064.435322682
    Finland..9.610212710650.649761000.191001001,407629
    France....9911010047.058617..0.412....1,299414
    Gabon....6650....9155420868.1280873638829
    Gambia, The59.34.8..3485..12290540551.223382539933
    Georgia6.55.686829945.2458632..0.182768333739
    Germany..8.5971009946.45928..0.18100..1,525500
    Ghana44.85.6654291..11283540472.220679589317
    Greece..6.7..9610141.15889..0.219....1,465177
    Guatemala13.52.970499138.74575240411.177956135061
    Guinea....492673..15573740563.22405113155
    Guinea-Bissau....271865..203801,10035..1995934817
    Guyana....9590116..6488170862.51408370329193
    Haiti53.92.4........11754680245.630671346459
    Honduras20.73.479....50.54192110561.877906815332
    Hungary<29.59710310047.1899161000.12699951,217267
    India34.78.984528817.58556540430.916886308532
    Indonesia7.58.4101629830.83872230720.1245785218467
    Iran, Islamic Rep. of<25.19582100..389676900.12793842708
    Iraq....744578....90..72<0.11328180....
    Ireland..7.410110910347.468151000.111....1,425265
    Israel..5.7101939948.969617..0.19100..1,499471
    Italy..6.5103999941.25845..0.57....1,541501
    Jamaica<26.7848410148.0208087971.2793801,021403
    Japan......10210040.849910..<0.1301001001,176587
    Jordan<26.7978810124.9279941100<0.159193407110
    Kazakhstan<27.4110989848.77399210..0.2151867235127
    Kenya....89489438.5120731,000426.761962488545
    Korea, Dem. Rep. of............55956797..17810059410
    Korea, Rep. of<27.91059110041.269920..<0.19092..1,303657
    Kuwait....919010424.112975....26....1,015244
    Kyrgyz Republic<28.9938810144.06899110990.1122766010652
    Lao PDR27.08.1744684..8336650190.11564324484
    Latvia<26.698959953.4129942..0.668....937350
    Lebanon....9489102..3196150..0.11110098429169
    Lesotho....7136104..112705506028.9696763710924
    Liberia............23542760515.9310622630
    Libya......104103..209997..0.320729715636
    Lithuania<26.81051039850.0898131000.163....1,235282
    Macedonia, FYR<26.197859942.214962399<0.130....64278
    Madagascar61.04.945......12359550511.72184533195
    Malawi....59299912.5175801,8006114.24136746254
    Malaysia....957010538.0129541970.410395..766397
    Mali....442274..219751,200411.92814845364
    Mauritania25.96.2432096..125641,000570.628756421355
    Mauritius....1008010338.515982499..6410099700146
    Mexico4.54.3977910237.4289683950.3329177545135
    Moldova22.07.8837410354.6289636..0.2138926839196
    Mongolia27.05.6969310849.4529611099<0.1192625918480
    Morocco<26.567478826.24395220630.11108061357117
    Mozambique....291182..152771,0004812.24604227277
    Myanmar....723899..10678360571.21718073101
    Namibia....815810550.863703007621.3717803020637
    Nepal24.16.071469017.47673740150.51848427227
    Netherlands..7.61001229845.769616..0.281001001,393614
    New Zealand......11910751.37857..0.111....1,189788
    Nicaragua45.15.67464103..3884230670.263816617723
    Niger....25871..259741,600161.21574612132
    Nigeria70.85.0763584..19735800355.429060387914
    Norway..9.610311410149.148816..0.15100..1,396390
    Oman....91869825.6139887950.111798941397
    Pakistan17.09.3..27738.710167500230.118190546313
    Panama6.52.5977010144.02499160930.945917238894
    Papua New Guinea....55268735.49344300410.623339451429
    Paraguay16.42.289659842.02489170770.571837834925
    Peru12.53.296909737.22989410590.51788162223117
    Philippines15.55.4988410241.1348020060<0.1293857344654
    Poland<27.51001059747.7897131000.129....777236
    Portugal......10910246.959551000.442....1,384281
    Puerto Rico..........40.1....25....5....974221
    Romania<28.1908510045.320974999<0.11465751673208
    Russian Federation<26.1..9310050.1219867991.11159687508111
    Rwanda51.7..3714100..203841,400315.13717341184
    São Tomé and Principe......3994..11891..76..107792479131
    Saudi Arabia....62689214.5279723....40....53766
    Senegal....451990..13757690580.824572527242
    Serbia and Montenegro....968910144.9159611930.2339387910147
    Sierra Leone......2671..283642,00042..4435739192
    Singapore..5.0......47.839430..0.240....1,350571
    Slovak Republic....1019210052.19983990.1191001001,027423
    Slovenia<29.11021129947.4494171000.115....1,278476
    Solomon Islands......3091..5672130....597031176
    Somalia............225401,10025..41129258825
    South Africa10.73.59691101..6781230..15.6718876747378
    Spain..7.0..11710240.75974..0.725....1,321336
    Sri Lanka5.68.3..8110243.2149692960.160789116514
    Sudan....49338818.99159590872.322069345832
    Swaziland....61429631.3156703707438.81,226525211932
    Sweden..9.1..13711150.94942..0.141001001,750756
    Switzerland..7.696939646.95827..0.471001001,560474
    Syrian Arab Rep.....107639418.21698160..<0.141797726943
    Tajikistan7.47.992828952.3938910071<0.11775853461
    Tanzania57.87.357......126941,500467.03477346329
    Thailand<26.3..779846.9219644991.51428599537109
    Togo....663973..14070570614.135551344837
    Trinidad and Tobago....948410141.32095160963.2991100745123
    Tunisia<26.0947710225.3259512090<0.122828048084
    Turkey3.45.3..858520.632817083..289383751142
    Turkmenistan..6.1........103973197<0.1657162828
    Uganda..5.9571997..13891880394.14025641447
    Ukraine<29.291939953.61899351001.4101989954579
    United Arab Emirates....756610214.489454....17..1001,128321
    United Kingdom..6.1..17011649.96..13..0.212....1,584628
    United States..5.4..9510048.889317..0.651001001,223630
    Uruguay<25.09410610546.3179527..0.3289894465198
    Uzbekistan..9.298959841.5699824960.111789577934
    Venezuela, R. B. de8.34.7897210341.5198096940.742836845089
    Vietnam..7.5101749451.82397130900.4176734118471
    West Bank and Gaza....9894103........97..23947638046
    Yemen, Republic of15.77.46248636.111176570270.1896930929
    Zambia75.86.1662693..182847504315.668055452920
    Zimbabwe....80369621.8129801,100..24.667483575563
    World......669338.17976410601.11398254476139
    Low-income....74468623.312264682402.122475367624
    Middle-income....97759840.53787142870.7114836148690
    Lower-middle-income....98729839.94086153860.3114815743874
    Upper-middle-income....96879844.1289192952.61129381564159
    Low- and middle-income....86619236.18674450601.2162795031262
    East Asia and Pacific....99699839.73782117860.2138784943574
    Europe and Central Asia....94929647.3349358940.7839182536138
    Latin America and the Caribbean....978710243.73192194870.7648975499115
    Middle East and North Africa....886790..5592183720.154887521942
    South Asia....82498718.19261564360.817784357626
    Sub-Saharan Africa....623084..16864921427.236358366519
    High-income......10510146.079314..0.41799..1,306545
    European Monetary Union......10810044.858910..0.313....1,430443
    Source: 2006 World Development Indicators database.Figures in italics refer to periods other than those specified.

    Data are for the most recent year available.

    .. Not available.
    Source: 2006 World Development Indicators database.Figures in italics refer to periods other than those specified.

    Data are for the most recent year available.

    .. Not available.
    TABLE A.2Measures of Governance Performance
    Overall governance performanceaBureaucratic capabilityaChecks and balances institutionsa
    Control of corruptionPolicy outcomeAggregate public institutionsBusiness transaction costsBudget and financial managementPublic administrationVoice and accountabilityJustice and rule of lawExecutive constraints
    KK Control of CorruptionbTI Corruption Perceptions IndexcICS—unofficial payments for firms to get things done (% of sales)dCPIA cluster A–C averageeCPIA cluster DeDoing Business 2005—dealing with licenses (time required, days)fICS—senior management time spent dealing with requirements of regulations (%)dCPIA 13eCPIA 15eKK Voice and AccountabilitybKK Rule of LawbCPIA 12ePolity IV 2004—executive constraintsg
    Est. 2004S.E.Est. 2005S.E.Est. 2004S.E.Est. 2004S.E.
    Afghanistan-1.330.212.51.09..............-1.350.14-1.810.17....
    Albania-0.720.162.40.351.61334410.4230.030.11-0.800.1536
    Algeria-0.490.142.80.726.0....244......-0.910.15-0.730.13..5
    Angola-1.120.152.00.22..55326..44-1.020.15-1.330.1443
    Argentina-0.440.132.80.60......288......0.490.14-0.710.12..6
    Armenia-0.530.142.90.470.7111763.021-0.660.11-0.580.1425
    Australia2.020.138.80.82......121......1.400.161.820.13..7
    Austria2.100.158.70.48......195......1.250.161.760.13..7
    Azerbaijan-1.040.122.20.462.7132125.213-0.970.10-0.850.1232
    Bangladesh-1.090.141.70.522.1131853.723-0.690.15-0.860.1335
    Belarus-0.910.152.61.390.5....3543.6....-1.540.11-1.310.14..2
    Belgium1.530.157.40.93......184......1.350.161.470.13..7
    Benin-0.340.192.91.33..12335..130.300.16-0.470.1735
    Bhutan0.690.226.91.75..11....21-1.180.190.270.2312
    Bolivia-0.780.152.50.53..13187..22-0.010.15-0.550.1347
    Bosnia and Herzegovina-0.540.142.90.380.3124764.323-0.140.11-0.760.143..
    Botswana0.860.155.91.40......160......0.730.140.730.13..7
    Brazil-0.150.133.70.46......4607.2....0.340.14-0.210.12..6
    Bulgaria-0.040.124.01.091.0....2122.8....0.580.110.050.12..7
    Burkina Faso-0.350.203.40.74..12241..12-0.380.15-0.620.1733
    Burundi-1.160.242.30.32..34302..44-1.130.18-1.500.214..
    Cambodia-0.970.192.30.484.6352478.644-0.890.16-0.980.1744
    Cameroon-0.780.172.20.37..23444..23-1.180.15-1.000.1442
    Canada1.990.148.40.95......87......1.380.161.750.13..7
    Central African Republic-1.360.242.40.42..45237..44-1.200.18-1.440.1842
    Chad-1.140.191.70.61..24199..24-1.090.16-1.150.1642
    Chile1.440.137.30.91......191......1.090.141.160.12..7
    China-0.510.123.20.601.6....36318.5....-1.540.15-0.470.12..3
    Hong Kong, China1.570.138.31.14......230......0.210.171.420.13....
    Colombia-0.160.134.00.83......150......-0.470.14-0.700.12..6
    Comoros-1.140.262.6....55....44-0.140.19-1.040.2547
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of-1.310.152.10.37..35306..34-1.640.15-1.740.144
    Congo, Rep. of-1.020.182.30.44..34174..34-0.790.17-1.180.1742
    Costa Rica0.780.144.20.85......120......1.110.140.570.13..7
    Côte d’Ivoire-1.010.171.90.26..44569..44-1.460.15-1.420.144..
    Croatia0.080.133.40.400.3....2782.7....0.460.110.070.12..6
    Cuba-0.620.173.81.58..............-1.880.15-1.120.14..1
    Czech Republic0.300.124.31.390.4....2452.1....1.030.110.690.11..7
    Denmark2.380.149.50.32......70......1.590.161.910.13..7
    Djibouti-0.940.262.6....24....34-0.850.19-0.610.2143
    Dominican Republic-0.500.153.00.81......150......0.270.15-0.540.13..6
    Ecuador-0.750.152.50.584.9....14913.4....-0.190.14-0.710.13..6
    Egypt, Arab Rep. of-0.210.143.40.808.0....263......-1.040.15-0.020.12..3
    El Salvador-0.390.174.21.061.1....1447.2....0.260.14-0.340.15..5
    Eritrea-0.640.222.61.340.2431873.843-1.960.17-0.780.2032
    Estonia0.820.126.41.080.2....1162.3....1.130.110.910.12..7
    Ethiopia-0.850.162.20.41..221332.122-1.110.14-1.000.1433
    Finland2.530.159.60.20......56......1.500.161.970.13..7
    France1.440.147.50.85......185......1.240.161.330.13..6
    Gabon-0.580.152.90.97..............-0.710.15-0.510.13..2
    Gambia, The-0.610.182.70.70..34....43-0.590.16-0.320.1732
    Georgia-0.910.132.30.470.2122823.023-0.340.11-0.870.1325
    Germany1.900.148.20.57......165......1.380.161.660.13..7
    Ghana-0.170.133.50.78..11127..220.390.14-0.160.1226
    Greece0.560.154.30.78......176......0.910.160.750.13..7
    Guatemala-0.740.152.50.572.6....29412.4....-0.390.13-0.960.13..6
    Guinea-0.810.231.70.04..34278..33-1.120.17-1.090.1843
    Guinea-Bissau-0.710.224.43.30..35....44-0.620.17-1.260.1942
    Guyana-0.350.242.50.36..13....230.620.19-0.480.2035
    Haiti-1.490.221.80.48..35186..44-1.500.15-1.660.184..
    Honduras-0.710.152.60.621.71219910.222-0.020.15-0.610.1425
    Hungary0.650.125.00.530.5....2134.0....1.160.110.850.11..7
    India-0.310.122.90.47..1127012.9120.270.15-0.090.1227
    Indonesia-0.900.122.20.431.1122244.012-0.440.13-0.910.1246
    Iran, Islamic Rep. of-0.590.152.90.76......668......-1.360.15-0.830.13..2
    Iraq-1.450.182.20.98......210......-1.710.15-1.970.15....
    Ireland1.610.147.40.97......181......1.300.161.620.13..7
    Israel0.790.146.31.24......219......0.460.160.770.13..7
    Italy0.660.155.00.75......284......1.060.160.740.13..7
    Jamaica-0.520.163.60.26......242......0.540.15-0.320.14..7
    Japan1.190.137.31.18......87......0.980.161.390.13..7
    Jordan0.350.145.71.04......122......-0.680.140.300.13..3
    Kazakhstan-1.100.132.60.850.7....2583.1....-1.210.10-0.980.12..2
    Kenya-0.890.132.10.462.91217011.723-0.340.13-0.980.1236
    Korea, Dem. Rep. of-1.460.231.50.31......60......-2.050.15-1.150.16..1
    Korea, Rep. of0.170.125.00.68..............0.730.150.670.12..6
    Kuwait0.710.174.70.99......149......-0.480.160.650.14..3
    Kyrgyz Republic-0.920.132.30.352.4141526.134-1.060.11-1.040.1344
    Lao PDR-1.150.193.31.97..35208..44-1.550.18-1.270.1733
    Latvia0.230.134.20.650.5....1602.9....0.960.110.480.12..7
    Lebanon-0.510.163.10.44......275......-0.810.15-0.320.14....
    Lesotho-0.050.183.40.76..12254..330.280.18-0.030.1627
    Liberia-0.860.302.20.15..............-1.240.16-1.760.24....
    Libya-0.910.182.50.72..............-1.790.15-0.650.14..1
    Lithuania0.360.124.80.570.8....1515.1....0.970.110.600.12..7
    Macedonia, FYR-0.520.142.70.680.4....2148.2....-0.020.11-0.440.13..7
    Madagascar-0.150.212.81.250.91235620.8320.070.17-0.300.1725
    Malawi-0.830.142.80.89..22205..32-0.500.14-0.290.1326
    Malaysia0.290.125.11.19......226......-0.360.130.520.12..4
    Mali-0.520.172.91.212.9112607.5130.350.15-0.340.1525
    Mauritania0.020.244.90.97..23152..33-1.160.19-0.620.2033
    Mauritius0.330.154.21.22......132......0.940.160.840.14..7
    Mexico-0.270.133.50.45......222......0.360.14-0.260.12..6
    Moldova-0.860.132.91.060.8231223.634-0.470.11-0.650.1227
    Mongolia-0.510.203.00.84..2396..230.450.160.180.1737
    Morocco-0.020.143.20.67......217......-0.550.14-0.050.13..3
    Mozambique-0.790.142.80.61..23212..33-0.130.15-0.600.1334
    Myanmar-1.490.191.80.25..............-2.190.15-1.620.15..2
    Namibia0.180.154.30.96......169......0.470.140.220.13..5
    Nepal-0.610.162.50.74..13147..23-1.000.14-0.820.1431
    Netherlands2.080.158.60.52......184......1.490.161.780.13..7
    New Zealand2.380.159.60.15......65......1.470.161.930.13..7
    Nicaragua-0.340.162.60.361.81219213.0220.060.13-0.650.1437
    Niger-0.870.232.40.29..23165..23-0.120.17-0.920.1835
    Nigeria-1.110.131.90.29..44465..34-0.650.13-1.440.1245
    Norway2.110.158.90.56......97......1.530.161.950.13..7
    Oman0.780.176.31.481.0....271......-0.900.160.980.14..2
    Pakistan-0.870.142.10.741.6122188.722-1.310.14-0.780.1232
    Panama-0.060.143.50.77......128......0.540.16-0.040.13..6
    Papua New Guinea-0.900.152.30.46..33218..23-0.030.15-0.820.1447
    Paraguay-0.990.152.10.35......273......-0.230.15-1.090.14..7
    Peru-0.350.143.50.61......201......-0.040.14-0.630.12..7
    Philippines-0.550.122.50.601.2....1976.9....0.020.15-0.620.12..6
    Poland0.160.123.40.950.4....3223.0....1.130.110.510.11..7
    Portugal1.230.156.51.17......327......1.310.161.160.13..7
    Puerto Rico0.880.276.30.87......137......1.020.220.740.23....
    Romania-0.250.123.00.860.6....2911.1....0.360.11-0.180.12..7
    Russian Federation-0.720.122.40.341.0....5286.3....-0.810.11-0.700.11..5
    Rwanda-0.360.243.11.72..22252..22-1.090.17-0.900.1933
    São Tomé and Principe-0.660.262.6....43....330.550.20-0.550.253..
    Saudi Arabia0.150.173.40.99......131......-1.630.150.200.13..1
    Senegal-0.400.153.20.610.211185..220.190.14-0.200.1326
    Serbia and Montenegro-0.480.142.80.670.6122128.0120.120.11-0.720.1436
    Sierra Leone-0.880.222.40.49..24236..23-0.490.15-1.100.1845
    Singapore2.440.139.40.22......129......-0.130.151.820.12..3
    Slovak Republic0.390.124.30.950.4....2723.0....1.100.110.490.12..7
    Slovenia0.970.126.11.160.1....2073.7....1.120.110.930.12..7
    Solomon Islands-1.230.24......44....440.100.20-1.150.2437
    Somalia-1.580.302.10.38..............-1.580.16-2.310.24....
    South Africa0.480.124.50.640.1....1769.2....0.860.140.320.11..7
    Spain1.450.147.00.74......277......1.170.161.120.13..7
    Sri Lanka-0.160.143.20.750.1121673.512-0.160.14-0.030.1325
    Sudan-1.300.172.10.24..45....44-1.810.15-1.590.1541
    Swaziland-0.950.192.70.67..............-1.450.18-0.950.16..2
    Sweden2.200.149.20.27......116......1.520.161.850.13..7
    Switzerland2.170.159.10.30......152......1.490.161.980.13..7
    Syrian Arab Rep.-0.740.173.41.07......13410.3....-1.720.15-0.400.14..3
    Tajikistan-1.110.152.10.371.024..3.344-1.120.11-1.180.1443
    Tanzania-0.570.132.90.471.31131314.412-0.350.14-0.490.1223
    Thailand-0.250.123.80.64......1471.3....0.240.15-0.050.12..7
    Togo-0.920.232.70.03..45273..44-1.220.17-1.010.1842
    Trinidad and Tobago0.020.163.80.97..............0.490.160.170.14..7
    Tunisia0.290.144.91.06......154......-1.110.150.240.13..2
    Turkey-0.230.133.50.961.0....23210.8....-0.150.150.040.12..7
    Turkmenistan-1.340.151.80.24..............-1.900.12-1.430.14..1
    Uganda-0.710.132.50.511.3121553.813-0.640.13-0.790.1223
    Ukraine-0.890.122.60.321.4....2658.1....-0.620.10-0.830.12..5
    United Arab Emirates1.230.176.21.37......125......-1.010.160.850.14..3
    United Kingdom2.060.148.60.51......115......1.370.161.710.13..7
    United States1.830.137.61.05......70......1.210.161.580.13..7
    Uruguay0.500.155.90.56......146......1.000.150.420.13..7
    Uzbekistan-1.210.132.20.200.624..2.534-1.750.10-1.300.1241
    Venezuela, R. B. de-0.940.132.30.20......276......-0.460.13-1.100.12..5
    Vietnam-0.740.122.60.590.5121435.822-1.540.14-0.590.1233
    West Bank and Gaza-0.600.342.60.49......144......-1.250.21-0.950.28....
    Yemen, Republic of-0.840.162.70.54..24131..33-0.990.14-1.110.1442
    Zambia-0.740.132.60.491.12316513.033-0.360.14-0.540.1235
    Zimbabwe-1.010.142.60.77..55481..44-1.480.13-1.530.1342
    Sources: Various indicators as labeled for individual columns.

    Though shown only for KK and TI, all indicators, as discussed in the text, have margins of error.

    KK Governance scores lie between -2.5 and 2.5, with higher scores corresponding to better outcomes (http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/governance/pdf/GovMatters_IV_main.pdf).

    Transparency International’s Corruption Perpections Index (CPI) score relates to perceptions of the degree of corruption as seen by businesspeople and country analysts and ranges between 10 (highly clean) and 0 (highly corrupt) (http://ww1.transparency.org/cpi/2005/cpi2005.sources.en.html).

    The CPIA 2004 data are grouped from strong (1) to weak (5), with the number of groups depending on the distribution of the data.

    Polity IV 2004 Executive Constraints scores lie between 1 and 7, with higher scores corresponding to better outcomes (http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/inscr/polity/index.htm).

    .. Not available.
    Sources: Various indicators as labeled for individual columns.

    Though shown only for KK and TI, all indicators, as discussed in the text, have margins of error.

    KK Governance scores lie between -2.5 and 2.5, with higher scores corresponding to better outcomes (http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/governance/pdf/GovMatters_IV_main.pdf).

    Transparency International’s Corruption Perpections Index (CPI) score relates to perceptions of the degree of corruption as seen by businesspeople and country analysts and ranges between 10 (highly clean) and 0 (highly corrupt) (http://ww1.transparency.org/cpi/2005/cpi2005.sources.en.html).

    The CPIA 2004 data are grouped from strong (1) to weak (5), with the number of groups depending on the distribution of the data.

    Polity IV 2004 Executive Constraints scores lie between 1 and 7, with higher scores corresponding to better outcomes (http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/inscr/polity/index.htm).

    .. Not available.
    TABLE A.3Overall Trade Restrictiveness Index (OTRI), 2005
    OTRIOTRI for agricultural sectorMarket access OTRIMarket access OTRI for agricultural sector
    Albania7.17.715.532.0
    Algeria40.848.712.10.0
    Argentina17.720.323.744.5
    Australia10.135.521.453.5
    Bahrain8.619.311.152.8
    Bangladesh18.823.017.724.7
    Belarus14.131.612.530.8
    Bhutan25.450.521.761.1
    Bolivia14.735.822.240.8
    Brazil23.538.116.144.7
    Brunei Darussalam8.412.717.10.0
    Burkina Faso13.038.527.035.1
    Cameroon17.624.09.917.5
    Canada6.018.512.045.4
    Central African Republic19.628.28.518.6
    Chad16.223.312.016.8
    Chile9.525.314.930.7
    China12.524.76.127.3
    Hong Kong, China1.114.610.927.2
    Colombia21.744.418.634.8
    Costa Rica4.611.915.539.3
    Côte d’Ivoire36.651.423.040.8
    Czech Republic4.46.88.246.4
    Ecuador14.735.618.327.7
    Egypt, Arab Rep. of39.979.116.163.5
    El Salvador12.815.722.647.2
    Equatorial Guinea15.924.35.941.3
    Estonia5.07.816.539.3
    Ethiopia16.614.423.942.6
    Gabon16.921.21.911.8
    Ghana15.431.29.421.1
    Guatemala12.738.923.933.1
    Honduras5.613.121.030.2
    Hungary8.122.611.745.1
    Iceland5.018.18.915.2
    India24.265.418.148.6
    Indonesia9.431.514.035.8
    Japan11.135.97.90.0
    Jordan20.321.39.925.9
    Kazakhstan14.333.316.358.8
    Kenya9.731.419.035.0
    Kyrgyz Republic4.08.616.937.5
    Lao PDR23.427.317.931.6
    Latvia9.732.417.034.8
    Lebanon14.346.215.736.6
    Lithuania5.918.121.940.3
    Madagascar13.318.120.637.7
    Malawi13.525.625.940.9
    Malaysia23.039.28.827.4
    Mali13.127.96.723.5
    Mauritius20.737.716.251.7
    Mexico26.957.97.725.2
    Moldova6.818.522.739.8
    Morocco44.373.111.828.2
    Mozambique13.329.222.237.4
    Nepal11.710.716.528.7
    New Zealand14.132.821.437.1
    Nicaragua10.337.828.343.5
    Nigeria47.075.75.915.1
    Norway7.969.99.130.7
    Oman12.955.07.816.9
    Pakistan15.134.821.964.2
    Papua New Guinea7.222.621.235.9
    Paraguay17.137.024.836.5
    Peru15.639.817.945.7
    Philippines20.550.29.761.3
    Poland8.325.714.333.1
    Romania17.838.412.029.2
    Russian Federation20.326.89.949.3
    Rwanda11.313.817.153.0
    Saudi Arabia10.615.23.144.4
    Senegal35.863.214.217.2
    Slovenia11.544.813.364.7
    South Africa7.112.312.246.7
    Sri Lanka7.517.818.223.4
    Sudan47.348.922.351.0
    Switzerland8.250.49.429.6
    Tanzania38.482.923.842.0
    Thailand9.237.713.669.3
    Trinidad and Tobago6.324.327.565.7
    Tunisia33.583.714.138.9
    Turkey11.337.711.937.3
    Uganda6.510.914.028.4
    Ukraine21.647.014.448.4
    United States7.821.610.847.6
    Uruguay20.236.126.940.5
    Venezuela, R. B. de21.547.06.437.3
    Vietnam35.252.522.353.1
    Zambia11.129.421.945.5
    Zimbabwe18.446.919.134.8
    Low-income20.229.718.237.1
    Middle-income16.633.312.139.4
    High-income11.228.612.634.9
    European Union11.937.511.937.3
    Source: World Bank staff estimates.Note: OTRI and Market Access OTRI are estimated using the most recent available tariff schedules (2004–5) and ad-valorem equivalents of nontariff barriers (about 2001). The OTRI measures the restrictiveness of a country’s own trade policies. It is defined as the uniform tariff that would keep aggregate imports at their observed level. The Market Access OTRI measures the restrictiveness of other countries’ trade policies on the export bundle of each country. For a detailed methodology on the estimation of the OTRI and the Market Access OTRI see Kee, Nicita, and Olarreaga (2006). For Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, and Japan the Market Access OTRI for agriculture was not estimated owing to their limited agricultural exports.
    Source: World Bank staff estimates.Note: OTRI and Market Access OTRI are estimated using the most recent available tariff schedules (2004–5) and ad-valorem equivalents of nontariff barriers (about 2001). The OTRI measures the restrictiveness of a country’s own trade policies. It is defined as the uniform tariff that would keep aggregate imports at their observed level. The Market Access OTRI measures the restrictiveness of other countries’ trade policies on the export bundle of each country. For a detailed methodology on the estimation of the OTRI and the Market Access OTRI see Kee, Nicita, and Olarreaga (2006). For Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, and Japan the Market Access OTRI for agriculture was not estimated owing to their limited agricultural exports.
    TABLE A.4Net Official Development Assistance (ODA) by DAC and non-DAC Countries
    20012004
    of which:
    ODA (current US$ millions)ODA (percent of GNI)ODA (current US$ millions)Technical Co-operation GrantsDebt Forgiveness GrantsFood and Emergency Aid GrantsOther Bilateral ODAaContributions to MultilateralsODA (percent of GNI)
    DAC Donors
    Austria6330.3467813311760133250.23
    Belgium8670.3714634142111031335610.50
    Denmark16341.032037112958938350.85
    Finland3890.32655127531532930.35
    France41980.3184732340196061428729060.41
    Germany49900.27753424868142304537120.28
    Greece2020.1746519613771610.23
    Ireland2870.3360712393301980.39
    Italy16270.15246214011510827817570.15
    Luxembourg1390.76236426137640.83
    Netherlands31720.824204663231341118915340.73
    Portugal2680.2510311145187241580.63
    Spain17370.30243734019810967010370.24
    Sweden16660.7727221122638414376460.78
    United Kingdom45790.327883751759523279825440.36
    EU Members, Total263880.33428867947443827179164167310.35
    Australia8730.251460692102072162700.25
    Canada15330.222599414743239716080.27
    Japan98470.2389061914241370521429880.19
    New Zealand1120.25212462872530.23
    Norway13460.8021992872618716620.87
    Switzerland9080.34154511783456883590.41
    United States114290.111970573471413916384334550.17
    DAC Members, Total524350.2279512187647084850116039251260.26
    Non-DAC Donors
    Czech Republic260.051081111929450.11
    Hungary5521350.06
    Iceland100.13211650.18
    Kuwait730.1920918524
    Korea2650.064235413247930.06
    Latvia8080.06
    Lithuania29180.04
    Other Bilateral Donors76492468240.11
    Poland360.0211825930.05
    Saudi Arabia4900.2717341691430.69
    Slovak Republic80.042811170.07
    Turkey640.043391854527470.11
    United Arab Emirates127181181
    Non-DAC Countries, Total11780.133726249116729004410.17
    Source: OECD DAC Database.

    Other Bilateral ODA is Bilateral ODA - special purpose grants (technical cooperation, debt forgiveness, food and emergency aid) and administrative costs (not shown).

    Note: DAC countries also gave $5600 million in 2001 and $8500 in 2004 to countries in transition and more advanced developing countries. These flows are not classified by OECD-DAC as Official Development Assistance and they are not included in the totals.
    Source: OECD DAC Database.

    Other Bilateral ODA is Bilateral ODA - special purpose grants (technical cooperation, debt forgiveness, food and emergency aid) and administrative costs (not shown).

    Note: DAC countries also gave $5600 million in 2001 and $8500 in 2004 to countries in transition and more advanced developing countries. These flows are not classified by OECD-DAC as Official Development Assistance and they are not included in the totals.
    TABLE A.5Net Official Development Assistance (ODA) Receipts
    20012004
    of which:
    ODA (current US$ millions)ODA (current US$ millions)Technical Co-operationDebt Forgiveness GrantsFood and Emergency Aid GrantsOther ODAODA per capita (in current US$)ODA (percent of GNI)
    Afghanistan4082190459430130138.0
    Albania2703621559198116.334.7
    Algeria22431318927979.670.4
    Angola28911447121685773.856.6
    Argentina15191661242.370.1
    Armenia198254992812783.948.1
    Azerbaijan23217670317521.192.3
    Bangladesh1030140421527114277610.092.4
    Benin2743789084819646.239.3
    Bhutan61782305587.0511.9
    Bolivia73576724250836-2085.149.1
    Bosnia and Herzegovina639671146447474171.637.7
    Botswana29393412222.050.5
    Brazil3492853282-461.550.0
    Burkina Faso392610105381445347.5812.7
    Burundi13735128713817748.2054.6
    Cambodia4204781571630634.6410.3
    Cameroon4877621524231017747.515.4
    Central African Republic6710534865726.348.0
    Chad18731944158717333.7611.8
    Chile5849672-203.040.1
    China14761661883137651.280.1
    Colombia381509478837-1411.330.5
    Comoros272513201042.526.9
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of263181514477825963432.5028.6
    Congo, Rep. of75116325146529.873.5
    Costa Rica213292-173.060.1
    Côte d’Ivoire1701547811963-1078.621.0
    Croatia1131217773627.240.4
    Cuba5490367488.00
    Djibouti586430062982.158.9
    Dominican Republic10887639159.920.5
    Ecuador1731601501316-1812.270.6
    Egypt, Arab Rep. of125714582011505110220.071.9
    EI Salvador238211138363831.201.4
    Eritrea2812603212210661.4428.6
    Ethiopia11161823179151456103726.0623.0
    Gabon9384473-1727.890.6
    Gambia, The546310234742.6316.0
    Georgia3003151028113269.725.9
    Ghana6441358142129225-10162.6815.4
    Guatemala227218125326117.730.8
    Guinea2822797270479030.327.3
    Guinea-Bissau597616625349.3628.2
    Guyana971452527686193.2719.3
    Haiti171243891906328.906.7
    Honduras679642115763741391.099.1
    India1724691400642280.640.1
    Indonesia14718443055-4000.390.0
    Iran, Islamic Rep. of1171898010462.820.1
    Iraq1224658396989613202
    Jamaica54753612101828.360.9
    Jordan43358110912113348106.805.0
    Kazakhstan148265120214217.670.7
    Kenya463635212249031018.974.0
    Korea, Dem. Rep. of12019655119228.76
    Kyrgyz Republic1892581102512350.6612.2
    Lao PDR2452707701018246.6211.5
    Lebanon243265110777874.851.3
    Lesotho5610214038556.736.3
    Liberia39210271483564.8053.3
    Macedonia, FYR24824810504139122.144.7
    Madagascar3741236975342857668.2428.8
    Malawi404476111492329237.7525.9
    Malaysia2729064222311.650.3
    Mali354567121117332643.2012.2
    Mauritania2681804085213360.4011.1
    Mauritius22382201630.790.6
    Mexico751211393-211.170.0
    Moldova12211858134727.984.0
    Mongolia2122627429159104.1916.4
    Morocco51970638171530323.671.4
    Mozambique9331228209177293063.2221.4
    Myanmar12712140430482.42
    Namibia11017972510289.093.1
    Nepal39442711812428616.066.4
    Nicaragua931123210686135230229.1628.2
    Niger257536602032125139.7117.5
    Nigeria185573255222964.450.9
    Oman255804721.710.2
    Pakistan19481421135425611889.341.5
    Panama28384601-911.970.3
    Papua New Guinea20326618717946.087.6
    Paraguay610490-490.000.0
    Peru453487292254013117.670.7
    Philippines574463236381885.670.5
    Rwanda29946897205030152.6925.8
    São Tomé and Principe3833151116215.7455.8
    Senegal41310522184981731992.3913.9
    Serbia and Montenegro130811702966108760143.614.9
    Sierra Leone34536037177922667.4634.4
    Solomon Islands5912297520261.9247.7
    Somalia1501911011305023.98
    South Africa428617241337313.560.3
    Sri Lanka313519774939426.732.7
    Sudan18588278468311824.834.5
    Swaziland29117116739104.484.9
    Syrian Arab Republic155110703735.920.5
    Tajikistan170241514514537.4812.1
    Tanzania1271174617527665123046.4016.2
    Thailand281-216118-180-0.030.0
    Timor-Leste19515382467165.4731.7
    Togo446135811710.193.0
    Tunisia378328142118533.021.2
    Turkey16925714725853.580.1
    Turkmenistan723728187.760.6
    Uganda79311592138615570541.6617.3
    Uruguay152217056.400.2
    Uzbekistan15324610351389.392.1
    Venezuela, R. B. de454936581.880.0
    Vietnam14501830313124149222.274.1
    West Bank and Gaza8701136154505477323.82
    Yemen, Rep. of46125252165113412.402.1
    Zambia34910811443872752394.1721.2
    Zimbabwe16418656676314.384.0
    East Asia & Pacific73276790306254603263
    Europe & Central Asia469654561860107242862
    Latin America & Caribbean59606793344015455911216
    Middle East & North Africa494810563201628319686296
    South Asia5943712816103149254280
    Sub-Saharan Africa141592594146345342389912065
    Unspecified by region880915298386220629375
    Low-income countries226903395463956525417816856
    Middle-income countries17857238238370961296911522
    Unallocated1129720192572012348110980
    Developing Countries, Total52153783082058174991063639592
    Source: OECD DAC Database.Regional totals do not include ODA that is unspecified by region. The total for developing countries includes ODA that is unallocated by country or income group. Regional and income group totals differ from those shown in the World Development Indicators because these aggregates do not include countries that the DAC classifies as “Part II: Countries and Territories in Transition.”
    Source: OECD DAC Database.Regional totals do not include ODA that is unspecified by region. The total for developing countries includes ODA that is unallocated by country or income group. Regional and income group totals differ from those shown in the World Development Indicators because these aggregates do not include countries that the DAC classifies as “Part II: Countries and Territories in Transition.”

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