- Sanjeev Gupta, Kevin Carey, and Ulrich Jacoby
- Published Date:
- October 2007
© 2007 International Monetary Fund
Production: IMF Multimedia Services Division
Cover Design: Lai Oy Louie
Typesetting: Alicia Etchebarne-Bourdin
Cover Photo: © Gideon Mendel/Corbis
Carey, Kevin Joseph, 1967–.
- Sub-Saharan Africa: forging new trade links with Asia/Kevin Carey, Sanjeev Gupta, and Ulrich Jacoby—Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 2007.
- p. cm.
- Includes bibliographical references.
- ISBN 978-1-58906-667-0
1. Africa, Sub-Saharan—Foreign economic relations—Asia. 2. Asia—Foreign economic relations—Africa, Sub-Saharan. 3. Africa, Sub-Saharan—Commerce. 4. Africa, Sub-Saharan—Economic conditions. 5. Africa, Sub-Saharan—Economic policy. I. Gupta, Sanjeev. II. Jacoby, Ulrich. III. International Monetary Fund.
Disclaimer: This publication should not be reported as representing the views or policies of the International Monetary Fund. The views expressed in this work are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the IMF, its Executive Board, or its management.
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- Chapter 1. Overview
- Chapter 2. Evolution of Sub-Saharan African Trade Patterns through 2005
- Chapter 3. Benchmarking Sub-Saharan African Trade Performance
- Chapter 4. Making Trade an Engine of Development
- Appendix 1. Data Source and Notes
- Appendix 2. Additional Tables and Figures
- 1. Sectoral Composition of Exports
- 2. Growth Rates of Broad Export Categories
- 3. Destination Shares of Broad Export Categories, 1990 and 2005
- 4. Merchandise Exports by Geographic Grouping, Destination, and Product, 1990 and 2005
- 5. Merchandise Imports by Geographic Grouping, Destination, and Product, 1990 and 2005
- 6. Import Shares of Major Product Categories
- 7. Import Shares of Disaggregated Product Categories
- 8. Growth of Major Manufacturing Export Categories by Geographic Group, 1990–2005
- 9. Top Two Markets and Suppliers of Major Manufacturing Exports, 2005
- 10. Coefficients on Selected Variables from the Global Gravity Model
- 11. Undertrading in Developing Countries, 2000–05
- 12. Undertrading in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2000–05
- A1. Export Shares of Major Product Categories, 1995 and 2005
- A2. Subgroups of Countries
- 1. Share of World Trade by Region, 1970–2005
- 2. Total Merchandise Exports by Destination, 1985 and 2005
- 3. Destination Shares of Sub-Saharan African Exports, 1990 and 2005
- 4. Exports of Major Merchandise Categories, 1985–2005
- 5a. Oil Importers: Fuel Share of Total Imports, 1995–2005
- 5b. Oil Importers: Growth of Fuel and Total Imports, 1995–2005
- 6. Sub-Saharan African Import Shares for Selected Products and Trade Partners, 1990 and 2005
- 7. Fastest-Growing Major Product Categories by Geographic Group
- 8. Sub-Saharan Africa: Undertrading by Geographic Subgroup, 2000–05
- 9. Selected Economies: Major Product Category Shares of Total Exports
- A1a. Selected Economies: Food and Beverage
- A1b. Selected Economies: Crude Inedible Materials
- A1c. Selected Economies: Manufacturing Share of Total Exports
- A1d. Selected Economies: Fuels Share of Total Exports
African, Caribbean, and Pacific
Africa Growth and Opportunity Act
Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (WTO)
Communauté Économique et Monétaire de l’Afrique Centrale (Central African Economic and Monetary Community)
China National Offshore Oil Corporation
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Everything But Arms initiative (European Union)
Economic Community of West African States
U.S. Energy Information Administration
National Oil Company of Equatorial Guinea
Generalized System of Preferences (WTO)
International service outsourcing
Latin America and the Caribbean
Middle East and North Africa
Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (IMF)
Regional trade agreements
Southern African Development Community
Standard International Trade Classification
World Trade Organization
Sub-Saharan Africa’s share in world trade has been declining since the 1970s. The growth in many emerging economies in Asia, in particular China, and the associated increased demand for commodities is creating opportunities for the region to reverse this decline and to use trade to promote growth and reduce poverty. This paper examines shifts in sub-Saharan Africa’s trade with different regions since 1985 as well as changes in its composition, including trade in manufactured goods. It also presents estimates on the extent to which sub-Saharan Africa is exploiting its trade potential, using a benchmark model. This is followed by an analysis of the impediments to trade that are specific to the region, and suggestions to tackle these in order to make trade an engine of growth.
An earlier, shorter version of this paper’s material appeared in the April 2007 issue of the Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa. The authors wish to thank Benedicte Christensen, Arvind Panagriya, Volker Treichel, Dmitry Gershenson, and Yongzheng Yang for their guidance and help in preparing this paper, and Axel Palmason, Stephen Tokarick, Brad McDonald, Felix Eschenbach, Caroline Freund, Zhiwei Zhang, and Nuno Limão for helpful comments. They are grateful to Gustavo Ramirez for research assistance, Anne Grant for editorial assistance, Emma Morgan for production of the document, and Marina Primorac for coordinating production of the printed publication.