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Market-Oriented Reform of Foreign Trade in Planned Economies

Market-Oriented Reform of Foreign Trade in Planned Economies »

Source: Market-Oriented Reform of Foreign Trade in Planned Economies

Volume/Issue: 1990/28

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1990

ISBN: 9781451981131

Keywords: foreign trade, exchange rate, foreign exchange, domestic prices, exchange rate system

This paper reviews the main features of market-oriented foreign trade reforms in planned economies. It considers reform initiatives aimed at expanding enterprise autonomy and breaking up the state monopoly of forei...

Measuring Competitiveness

Measuring Competitiveness »

Source: Measuring Competitiveness : Trade in Goods or Tasks?

Volume/Issue: 2013/100

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tamim Bayoumi , Mika Saito , and Jarkko Turunen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 May 2013

ISBN: 9781484325803

Keywords: Real Effective Exchange Rate, Global Supply Chains, reer, global supply, intermediate inputs, domestic production, gross exports, General,

With global supply chains, any value added or production task can be traded as part of goods. This means that competitiveness can be measured either in terms of “tasks” (Bems and Johnson, 2012), or go...

New Rates from New Weights

New Rates from New Weights »

Source: New Rates from New Weights

Volume/Issue: 2005/99

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2005

ISBN: 9781451861181

Keywords: Weight, effective exchange rate, exchange rate, exchange rates, real exchange rates, real effective exchange rate, Trade: General, International Finance: General,

This paper describes the result and the methodology of updating nominal and real effective exchange rate weights on the basis of trade data over 1999-2001. The underlying framework is an updated version of the IMF'...

Patterns of Shocks and Regional Monetary Cooperation in South Asia

Patterns of Shocks and Regional Monetary Cooperation in South Asia »

Source: Patterns of Shocks and Regional Monetary Cooperation in South Asia

Volume/Issue: 2003/240

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Nephil Maskay

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2003

ISBN: 9781451875812

Keywords: shocks, regional monetary cooperation, exchange rate, economic integration, exchange rates, output growth, exchange rate policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance,

The member states of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation have set as a target the achievement of an economic union by 2020. Reaching this goal will require greater levels of monetary cooperation. H...

Real Effects of Common Currencies in East Asia

Real Effects of Common Currencies in East Asia »

Source: Real Effects of Common Currencies in East Asia

Volume/Issue: 2007/166

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kazuko Shirono

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2007

ISBN: 9781451867305

Keywords: Currency Union, Gravity Model, exchange rate, bilateral trade, currency unions, trade costs, exchange rate policies,

Since the 1997 Asian currency crisis, new interest has emerged in the formation of a common currency area in East Asia. This paper provides estimates of trade and welfare effects of East Asian currency unions, usin...

Reserve Adequacy in Emerging Market Economics

Reserve Adequacy in Emerging Market Economics »

Source: Reserve Adequacy in Emerging Market Economics

Volume/Issue: 2001/143

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2001

ISBN: 9781451856347

Keywords: Reserves, vulnerability, capital flight, exchange rate, currency board, external debt, exchange rates, foreign exchange

This paper analyzes reserve adequacy in emerging market countries. It argues that the old rule of thumb of maintaining reserves equivalent to three months of imports has become obsolete and that, instead, a new ben...

The Russian Financial Crisis and its Consequences for Central Asia

The Russian Financial Crisis and its Consequences for Central Asia »

Source: The Russian Financial Crisis and its Consequences for Central Asia

Volume/Issue: 2001/169

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gonzalo Pastor , and Tatiana Damjanovic

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2001

ISBN: 9781451858341

Keywords: Russian financial crisis, external debt issues, exchange rate, foreign exchange, exchange rates, external debt, exchange rate flexibility, Studies of Particular Policy Episodes, Kyrgyzstan,

This paper reviews the economic conditions in central Asia at the time of the Russian financial crisis of August 1998; the channels by which the crisis was transmitted to the central Asian region; and the policy re...

Shifting Motives

Shifting Motives »

Source: Shifting Motives : Explaining the Buildup in official Reserves in Emerging Markets Since the 1980's

Volume/Issue: 2012/34

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

ISBN: 9781463933197

Keywords: Quantile Regression, exchange rate, reserve holdings, short-term debt, exchange rate regime, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

Why have emerging market economies (EMEs) been stockpiling international reserves? We find that motives have varied over time?vulnerability to current account shocks was relatively important in the 1980s but, as EM...

The Shifting Structure of China's Trade and Production

The Shifting Structure of China's Trade and Production »

Source: The Shifting Structure of China's Trade and Production

Volume/Issue: 2007/214

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Li Cui , and Murtaza Syed

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2007

ISBN: 9781451867787

Keywords: Value added, processing trade, exchange rate, domestic demand, domestic production, trade structure, trade flows,

This paper uses disaggregated trade data to assess how the expansion of China's production capacity and its changing production structure may be affecting its trade linkages with other countries. It finds that Chin...

Testing the Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis since 1650

Testing the Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis since 1650 »

Source: Testing the Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis since 1650 : Evidence from Panel Techniques that Allow for Multiple Breaks

Volume/Issue: 2013/180

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rabah Arezki , Kaddour Hadri , Prakash Loungani , and Yao Rao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 August 2013

ISBN: 9781484341155

Keywords: Primary, commodities, Unit, root tests, Multiple, Structural breaks, Volatility, commodity markets, price fluctuations, transport costs

In this paper, we re-examine two important aspects of the dynamics of relative primary commodity prices, namely the secular trend and the short run volatility. To do so, we employ 25 series, some of them starting a...