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Promoting Inclusive Growth

How to get global growth going again through trade, productivity, reducing inequality, and promoting women's economic empowerment.

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Appendix 5: Data and Modeling Strategy

Appendix 5: Data and Modeling Strategy »

Source: Changing Patterns of Global Trade

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Nagwa Riad , Luca Errico , Christian Henn , Christian Saborowski , Mika Saito , and Jarkko Turunen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2012

ISBN: 9781616352073

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developed countries, International trade, Trade integration, supply chain, gross exports, trade flows, global trade, technology exports

The objective of this exercise is to quantify at a high level of product detail the implications of sectoral and supply chain linkages on the trade impact of relative price changes. The model employed for th...

Appendix 3: Definition of Concepts Related to Export Analysis

Appendix 3: Definition of Concepts Related to Export Analysis »

Source: Changing Patterns of Global Trade

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Nagwa Riad , Luca Errico , Christian Henn , Christian Saborowski , Mika Saito , and Jarkko Turunen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2012

ISBN: 9781616352073

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developed countries, International trade, Trade integration, supply chain, gross exports, trade flows, global trade, technology exports

The Export Similarity Index (ESI) measures the extent of overlap in countries’ export structures and thus provides a sense of the competitive pressures faced by countries at differe...

Appendix. Historical Experience in Establishing Convertibility

Appendix. Historical Experience in Establishing Convertibility »

Source: Currency Convertibility and the Transformation of Centrally Planned Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Joshua Greene , and Peter Isard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

ISBN: 9781557752147

Keywords: Centrally planned economies, current account, exchange rate, current account convertibility, foreign exchange, capital account

Historically, most countries have introduced current account convertibility rather late in their development process, usually after initiating industrial reforms and trade liberalization. Thus, few developin...

Appendix I Summary of Structural Reforms

Appendix I Summary of Structural Reforms »

Source: Economic Reform in China : A New Phase

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): David Burton , Wanda Tseng , Kalpana Kochhar , Hoe Khor , and Dubravko Mihaljek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

ISBN: 9781557754219

Keywords: foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy, banking, tax administration

Status up to 1993 Planned Reform Measures Implement...

Appendix II Money, Activity, and Prices in China: An Analysis of Causality

Appendix II Money, Activity, and Prices in China: An Analysis of Causality »

Source: Economic Reform in China : A New Phase

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): David Burton , Wanda Tseng , Kalpana Kochhar , Hoe Khor , and Dubravko Mihaljek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

ISBN: 9781557754219

Keywords: foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy, banking, tax administration

The principal purpose of this analysis is to study the joint movements of prices, activity, and monetary and credit variables in China over the past decade. The aim is twofold. Firs...

Appendix III Import Demand in China

Appendix III Import Demand in China »

Source: Economic Reform in China : A New Phase

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): David Burton , Wanda Tseng , Kalpana Kochhar , Hoe Khor , and Dubravko Mihaljek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

ISBN: 9781557754219

Keywords: foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy, banking, tax administration

Since the inception of the process of opening up to the outside world in the late 1970s, the rote of external trade in China’s economy has grown dramatically. 106...

Appendix IV The Demand for Money in China

Appendix IV The Demand for Money in China »

Source: Economic Reform in China : A New Phase

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): David Burton , Wanda Tseng , Kalpana Kochhar , Hoe Khor , and Dubravko Mihaljek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

ISBN: 9781557754219

Keywords: foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy, banking, tax administration

The Chinese authorities’ decision to accelerate reforms of the banking system and the financial sector, with a view to moving to a system of monetary control through indirect, marke...

Appendix 2: Measures Used to Characterize Global Supply Chains

Appendix 2: Measures Used to Characterize Global Supply Chains »

Source: Changing Patterns of Global Trade

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Nagwa Riad , Luca Errico , Christian Henn , Christian Saborowski , Mika Saito , and Jarkko Turunen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2012

ISBN: 9781616352073

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developed countries, International trade, Trade integration, supply chain, gross exports, trade flows, global trade, technology exports

Various measures can be used to characterize global supply chains. Hummels, Ishii, and Yi (2001) were the first to measure the value of imported contents embodied in a country’s exp...

Appendix 6: Measuring the Impact of Relative Price Changes on the Current Account Balance

Appendix 6: Measuring the Impact of Relative Price Changes on the Current Account Balance »

Source: Changing Patterns of Global Trade

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Nagwa Riad , Luca Errico , Christian Henn , Christian Saborowski , Mika Saito , and Jarkko Turunen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2012

ISBN: 9781616352073

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developed countries, International trade, Trade integration, supply chain, gross exports, trade flows, global trade, technology exports

Changes in a country’s exports obtained in the simulation described in Appendix 2 are fed back into the current account balance relative to GDP in two ways. First a fall in exports...

Appendix 4: New Drivers of Global Trade: Key Stylized Facts

Appendix 4: New Drivers of Global Trade: Key Stylized Facts »

Source: Changing Patterns of Global Trade

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Nagwa Riad , Luca Errico , Christian Henn , Christian Saborowski , Mika Saito , and Jarkko Turunen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2012

ISBN: 9781616352073

Keywords: Emerging markets, Developed countries, International trade, Trade integration, supply chain, gross exports, trade flows, global trade, technology exports

Changes in export composition by trading partner strongly reflect the emergence of EMEs (Figure A4.1). As a consequence, those countries more strongly exposed to EMEs generally expe...