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4. Special Drawing Rights

4. Special Drawing Rights »

Source: IMF Financial Operations 2015

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2015

ISBN: 9781513549897

Keywords: interest, lending, debt, reserve, income

Special drawing rights (SDRs) were created in 1969 as an international reserve asset to supplement other reserve assets whose growth was inadequate to finance the expansion of international trade and finance...

5. The IMF’S Income Model

5. The IMF’S Income Model »

Source: IMF Financial Operations 2015

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2015

ISBN: 9781513549897

Keywords: interest, lending, debt, reserve, income

This chapter explains the sources of income for the IMF. It elaborates on how the IMF has adapted its financial structure to finance its administrative expenditures. The IMF’s income is generated primarily t...

How to De-Dollarize Financial Systems in the Caucasus and Central Asia?1

How to De-Dollarize Financial Systems in the Caucasus and Central Asia?1 »

Source: How to De-Dollarize Financial Systems in the Caucasus and Central Asia?

Volume/Issue: 2015/203

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sami Ben Naceur , Amr Hosny , and Gregory Hadjian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 September 2015

ISBN: 9781513507279

Keywords: financial dollarization, financial development, de-dollarization, exchange, exchange rate, currency, inflation, deposits, General,

Dollarization rates in the Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) region are among the highest in the world, with adverse consequences for macroeconomic stability, monetary policy transmission, and financial sector develo...

How to De-Dollarize Financial Systems in the Caucasus and Central Asia?

How to De-Dollarize Financial Systems in the Caucasus and Central Asia? »

Volume/Issue: 2015/203

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sami Ben Naceur , Amr Hosny , and Gregory Hadjian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 September 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513507279.001

ISBN: 9781513507279

Keywords: financial dollarization, financial development, de-dollarization, exchange, exchange rate, currency, inflation, deposits, General,

Dollarization rates in the Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) region are among the highest in the world, with adverse consequences for macroeconomic stability, monetary policy transmission, and financial sector develo...

Chapter 21. A Path to Equitable Fiscal Consolidation in the Republic of Congo

Chapter 21. A Path to Equitable Fiscal Consolidation in the Republic of Congo »

Source: Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

Introduction This chapter addresses the issue of fiscal consolidation design in an oil-dependent country, the Republic of Congo, with a limited remaining lifetime of oil reserves and...

Chapter 13. Carbon Tax Burdens on Low-Income Households: A Reason for Delaying Climate Policy?

Chapter 13. Carbon Tax Burdens on Low-Income Households: A Reason for Delaying Climate Policy? »

Source: Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

Introduction Without strong measures to mitigate carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases, global temperatures are projected to rise by about 3–4°C over preindustrial levels b...

Chapter 15. Equity Considerations in the Design of Public Pension Systems

Chapter 15. Equity Considerations in the Design of Public Pension Systems »

Source: Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

Introduction Public pension systems are key instruments of social policy: they prevent poverty after retirement and limit the difference between pre- and postretirement consumption l...

Chapter 22. Fiscal Adjustment and Income Inequality in Brazilian States

Chapter 22. Fiscal Adjustment and Income Inequality in Brazilian States »

Source: Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

Introduction This chapter assesses the links between fiscal policy and income inequality in Brazil for the period 1995–2011 by combining fiscal data with household survey information...

Chapter 9. Fiscal Consolidation and Income Inequality

Chapter 9. Fiscal Consolidation and Income Inequality »

Source: Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

Introduction Fiscal adjustment, by its very nature, affects income inequality. It does so through the direct effect of tax increases and government spending cuts on disposable income...

Chapter 8. Fiscal Consolidation and Inequality in Advanced Economies: How Robust Is the Link?

Chapter 8. Fiscal Consolidation and Inequality in Advanced Economies: How Robust Is the Link? »

Source: Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

[We need a] fiscal policy that focuses not only on efficiency, but also on equity, particularly on fairness in sharing the burden of adjustment, and on protecting the weak and vulnerable....