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Appendix. Historical Experience in Establishing Convertibility

Appendix. Historical Experience in Establishing Convertibility »

Source: Currency Convertibility and the Transformation of Centrally Planned Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Joshua Greene , and Peter Isard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

ISBN: 9781557752147

Keywords: Centrally planned economies, current account, exchange rate, current account convertibility, foreign exchange, capital account

Historically, most countries have introduced current account convertibility rather late in their development process, usually after initiating industrial reforms and trade liberalization. Thus, few developin...

Appendix I. Seminar Participants

Appendix I. Seminar Participants »

Source: Value-Added Tax : Administrative and Policy Issues

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alan Tait

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1991

ISBN: 9781557751843

Keywords: vat, tax administration, tax return, sales tax, tax department

Bangladesh S.M. Akram Member National Board of Revenue Fouzul Kabir Khan First Secretary...

10 Assessing the Impact of Structural Adjustment on the Poor: The Case of Malawi

10 Assessing the Impact of Structural Adjustment on the Poor: The Case of Malawi »

Source: Social Safety Nets : Issues and Recent Experience

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 1998

ISBN: 9781557756800

Keywords: benefits, wage, unemployment, social protection, wages

This case study of Malawi illustrates a practical approach for assessing the impact of structural adjustment policies on poverty. Malawi initiated a structural adjustment program in 1987, which, since mid-19...

Asset Price Bubbles

Asset Price Bubbles »

Source: Asset Price Bubbles : A Selective Survey

Volume/Issue: 2013/45

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anna Scherbina

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 February 2013

ISBN: 9781475515299

Keywords: Bubbles, Limits to Arbitrage, stock market, discount rate, mortgage, cash flows, financial economics, General,

Why do asset price bubbles continue to appear in various markets? This paper provides an overview of recent literature on bubbles, with significant attention given to behavioral models and rational models with fric...

6 Bangladesh: Economic Reform Measures and the Poor

6 Bangladesh: Economic Reform Measures and the Poor »

Source: Social Safety Nets : Issues and Recent Experience

Series: Books

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 1998

ISBN: 9781557756800

Keywords: benefits, wage, unemployment, social protection, wages

With a per capita income of about $200 in 1991, Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world. More than half of its population—50 million people—live in poverty. The most vulnerable groups include...

Bank Asset Quality in Emerging Markets

Bank Asset Quality in Emerging Markets »

Source: Bank Asset Quality in Emerging Markets : Determinants and Spillovers

Volume/Issue: 2012/71

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Reinout De Bock , and Alexander Demyanets

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

ISBN: 9781475502237

Keywords: Macro-financial linkages, Nonperforming loans, Exchange rate, Panel regressions, capital inflows, net capital flows, exchange rates, Bank Asset Quality in Emerging Markets, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, International Finance: General

This paper assesses the vulnerability of emerging markets and their banks to aggregate shocks. We find significant links between banks' asset quality, credit and macroeconomic aggregates. Lower economic growth, an...

Bank Ownership and Credit Growth in Emerging Markets During and After the 2008–09 Financial Crisis — A Cross-Regional Comparison1

Bank Ownership and Credit Growth in Emerging Markets During and After the 2008–09 Financial Crisis — A Cross-Regional Comparison1 »

Source: Bank Ownership and Credit Growth in Emerging Markets During and After the 2008-09 Financial Crisis - A Cross-Regional Comparison

Volume/Issue: 2014/171

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Guodong Chen , and Yi Wu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2014

ISBN: 9781484390993

Keywords: Credit Growth, Bank Ownership, Financial Crisis, banking, banking regulation, foreign bank,

This paper examines bank credit growth in emerging markets before, during, and after the 2008-09 financial crisis using bank-level data, focusing on the role of bank ownership. Credit growth by foreign banks lagged...

A Bayesian-Estimated Model of Inflation Targeting in South Africa

A Bayesian-Estimated Model of Inflation Targeting in South Africa »

Source: IMF Staff Papers, Volume 57, No. 2

Volume: 57

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 June 2010

ISBN: 9781589069121

Keywords: financial liberalization, financial sector, reserve requirements, interest rate controls, financial reforms

This paper introduces a new database of financial reforms covering 91 economies over 1973-2005. It describes the content of the database, the information sources utilized, and the coding rules used to create an ind...

“Big Bang” Versus Gradualism in Economic Reforms: An Intertemporal Analysis with an Application to China

“Big Bang” Versus Gradualism in Economic Reforms: An Intertemporal Analysis with an Application to China »

Source: IMF Staff Papers, Volume 50, No. 3

Volume: 50

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): Robert Flood

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 November 2003

ISBN: 9781589062030

Keywords: unit root, real exchange rate, confidence intervals, confidence interval, serial correlation

This paper analyzes the issue of purchasing power parity using real effective exchange rate (REER) data for 20 industrial countries in the post-Bretton Woods period. The serial correlation-robust median-unbiased es...

Bivariate Assessments of Real Exchange Rates Using PPP Data

Bivariate Assessments of Real Exchange Rates Using PPP Data »

Source: Bivariate Assessments of Real Exchange Rates Using PPP Data

Volume/Issue: 2008/153

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Juan Zalduendo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2008

ISBN: 9781451870114

Keywords: Real exchange rate, exchange rate, real exchange rates

This paper focuses on assessments of real exchange rates using PPP data and examines their limitations when these are based exclusively on bivariate estimations. It begins by presenting an analytical framework of t...