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Brazil

Boom, Bust, and the Road to Recovery

Brazil is at crossroads, emerging slowly from a historic recession that was preceded by a huge economic boom.

People's Republic of China-Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
			: 2019 Article IV Consultation Discussions-Press Release; Staff Report; Staff Statement and Statement by the Executive Director for the People's Republic of China-Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

People's Republic of China-Hong Kong Special Administrative Region : 2019 Article IV Consultation Discussions-Press Release; Staff Report; Staff Statement and Statement by the Executive Director for the People's Republic of China-Hong Kong Special Administrative Region »

Volume/Issue: 2019/394

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 December 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513524627.002

ISBN: 9781513524627

Keywords: Economic conditions, Financial statistics, External sector, National accounts, Economic indicators, ISCR, CR, HKMA, percent change, trade tension

This 2019 Article IV Consultation with People's Republic of China-Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) discusses that the economy is projected to start recovering next year, but the pace is expected to be...

Liquidity Choice and Misallocation of Credit

Liquidity Choice and Misallocation of Credit »

Volume/Issue: 2019/284

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ehsan Ebrahimy

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 December 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513521480.001

ISBN: 9781513521480

Keywords: Real sector, Negative interest rates, Positive interest rates, Interest rate increases, Interest rates, WP, financial development, competitive equilibrium, liquid equilibrium, Tirole

This paper studies a novel type of misallocation of credit between investments of varying liquidity. One type of investment is more liquid, i.e., its return is more pledgeable, and the other is more productive. Low...

China's Productivity Convergence and Growth Potential-A Stocktaking and Sectoral Approach

China's Productivity Convergence and Growth Potential-A Stocktaking and Sectoral Approach »

Volume/Issue: 2019/263

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Min Zhu , Longmei Zhang , and Daoju Peng

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 November 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513515359.001

ISBN: 9781513515359

Keywords: Economic theory, Economic reforms, Economic growth, Real sector, Financial crises, Potential Growth, China, Convergence, WP, productivity growth

China's growth potential has become a hotly debated topic as the economy has reached an income level susceptible to the 'middle-income trap' and financial vulnerabilities are mounting after years of rapid credit ex...

Assessing Macro-Financial Risks of Household Debt in China

Assessing Macro-Financial Risks of Household Debt in China »

Volume/Issue: 2019/258

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Fei Han , Emilia Jurzyk , Wei Guo , Yun He , and Nadia Rendak

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 November 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513516073.001

ISBN: 9781513516073

Keywords: Financial crises, Fiscal sector, Real sector, Demographic indicators, National accounts, Household indebtedness, macro-financial risks, houshold survey, WP, consumption growth

High household indebtedness could constrain future consumption growth and increase financial stability risks. This paper uses household survey data to analyze both macroeconomic and finanical stability risks from t...

The Drivers, Implications and Outlook for China's Shrinking Current Account Surplus

The Drivers, Implications and Outlook for China's Shrinking Current Account Surplus »

Volume/Issue: 2019/244

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Pragyan Deb , Albe Gjonbalaj , and Swarnali Hannan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 November 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513516097.001

ISBN: 9781513516097

Keywords: Accounting, Aging, Assets, Balance of trade, Bank deposits, Bilateral trade, Bonds, Capital, Capital account, Capital flows

China's current account surplus has declined significantly from its peak in 2008 and the external position in 2018 was in line with medium-term fundamentals and desirable policies. While cyclical factors and expans...

SME Financial Inclusion for Sustained Growth in the Middle East and Central Asia

SME Financial Inclusion for Sustained Growth in the Middle East and Central Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2019/209

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mishel Ghassibe , Maximiliano Appendino , and Samir Elsadek Mahmoudi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 September 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513509112.001

ISBN: 9781513509112

Keywords: Financial crises, Real sector, Financial inclusion, Labor productivity, Economic growth, Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, Economic Grow, WP, central Asia region, SMEs

This paper offers empirical evidence that greater financial inclusion of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) can promote higher economic growth and employment, especially in the Middle East and Central Asia regions...

People's Republic of China
			: Selected Issues

People's Republic of China : Selected Issues »

Volume/Issue: 2019/274

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 August 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513511252.002

ISBN: 9781513511252

Keywords: Financial crises, Balance of trade, Fiscal sector, Bilateral trade, Credit, trade balance, SOEs, consumption growth, implicit guarantee, household debt

This Selected Issues paper focuses on the drivers, implications and outlook for China's shrinking current account surplus. Although cyclical factors helped in 2018, the trend decline has been largely structural, dr...

People's Republic of China
			: Detailed Assessment Report on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism

People's Republic of China : Detailed Assessment Report on Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism »

Volume/Issue: 2019/172

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 June 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498320689.002

ISBN: 9781498320689

Keywords: Systemically important financial institutions, Real sector, Social security, Money laundering, Central banks, STRs, PBC, financial intelligence, CFT, AML

This report provides a summary of the anti-money laundering/combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) measures in place in the People's Republic of China (China)1 as at the date of the onsite visit (July 9-27,...

Promoting Inclusive Growth in the Caucasus and Central Asia

Promoting Inclusive Growth in the Caucasus and Central Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2019/9

Series: Departmental Papers / Policy Papers

Author(s): Mercedes Vera-Martín , Dominique Fayad , Sergejs Saksonovs , Wei Shi , and Fang Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 May 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498313353.087

ISBN: 9781498313353

Keywords: Central Asia and the Caucasus, Inclusive growth, Financial inclusion, Fiscal policy, Economic growth, Unemployment, Total factor productivity, Credit, Caucasus and Central Asia, CCA

CCA countries achieved gains in inclusiveness over the past 20 years as incomes increased and poverty, inequality, and unemployment declined. Most of the progress occurred before the 2008-09 global financial crisis...

Financial Deepening, Terms of Trade Shocks, and Growth Volatility in Low-Income Countries

Financial Deepening, Terms of Trade Shocks, and Growth Volatility in Low-Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2019/68

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kangni Kpodar , Maelan Le Goff , and Raju Singh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 March 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498303569.001

ISBN: 9781498303569

Keywords: Financial sector development, Economic stabilization, Real sector, International capital markets, Terms of trade, Banks, stock markets, terms of trade shocks, growth volatility, volatility

This paper contributes to the literature by looking at the possible relevance of the structure of the financial system-whether financial intermediation is performed through banks or markets-for macroeconomic volati...