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Shifting Motives
			: Explaining the Buildup in official Reserves in Emerging Markets Since the 1980's

Shifting Motives : Explaining the Buildup in official Reserves in Emerging Markets Since the 1980's »

Volume/Issue: 2012/34

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463933197.001

ISBN: 9781463933197

Keywords: Quantile Regression, exchange rate, reserve holdings, short-term debt, exchange rate regime, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

Why have emerging market economies (EMEs) been stockpiling international reserves? We find that motives have varied over time?vulnerability to current account shocks was relatively important in the 1980s but, as EM...

Protectionist Responses to the Crisis
			: Damage Observed in Product-Level Trade

Protectionist Responses to the Crisis : Damage Observed in Product-Level Trade »

Volume/Issue: 2011/139

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Brad McDonald , and Christian Henn

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455265442.001

ISBN: 9781455265442

Keywords: Global Crisis, First-differenced Gravity Equation, Time-varying Fixed Effects, WTO, trade impact, import restrictions, trade flows, global trade, world trade, Trade: General

This paper investigates how trade flows are being affected by new discriminatory measures implemented during the global financial crisis. We match data on behind-the-border measures (e.g., bailouts and subsidies) a...

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 11

IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 11 »

Volume/Issue: 34/11

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 June 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451938661.023

ISBN: 9781451938661

Keywords: international monetary fund, emerging economies, world trade, global economy

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

New Rates from New Weights

New Rates from New Weights »

Volume/Issue: 2005/99

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451861181.001

ISBN: 9781451861181

Keywords: Weight, effective exchange rate, exchange rate, exchange rates, real exchange rates, real effective exchange rate, Trade: General, International Finance: General,

This paper describes the result and the methodology of updating nominal and real effective exchange rate weights on the basis of trade data over 1999-2001. The underlying framework is an updated version of the IMF'...

Reserve Adequacy in Emerging Market Economics

Reserve Adequacy in Emerging Market Economics »

Volume/Issue: 2001/143

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451856347.001

ISBN: 9781451856347

Keywords: Reserves, vulnerability, capital flight, exchange rate, currency board, external debt, exchange rates, foreign exchange

This paper analyzes reserve adequacy in emerging market countries. It argues that the old rule of thumb of maintaining reserves equivalent to three months of imports has become obsolete and that, instead, a new ben...