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Shifting Motives
			: Explaining the Buildup in official Reserves in Emerging Markets Since the 1980's

Shifting Motives : Explaining the Buildup in official Reserves in Emerging Markets Since the 1980's »

Volume/Issue: 2012/34

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463933197.001

ISBN: 9781463933197

Keywords: Quantile Regression, exchange rate, reserve holdings, short-term debt, exchange rate regime, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

Why have emerging market economies (EMEs) been stockpiling international reserves? We find that motives have varied over time?vulnerability to current account shocks was relatively important in the 1980s but, as EM...

IMF Research Bulletin, March 2008

IMF Research Bulletin, March 2008 »

Volume/Issue: 9/1

Series: IMF Research Bulletin

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 March 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451959376.026

ISBN: 9781451959376

Keywords: fdi, foreign direct investment, investment, direct investment, financial flows, Foreign investments, Expertise, Export Processing Zones, International Economic Integration, North American Free Trade Agreement (nafta)

IMF research summaries on foreign direct investment (by Yuko Kinoshita) and on trade linkages and business cycles (by Julian di Giovanni and Andrei Levchenko); country study on Mexico (by Roberto Garcia-Saltos); li...

Foreign Banks in Poor Countries
			: Theory and Evidence

Foreign Banks in Poor Countries : Theory and Evidence »

Volume/Issue: 2006/18

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Enrica Detragiache , Poonam Gupta , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862782.001

ISBN: 9781451862782

Keywords: Financial development, low-income countries, foreign bank, foreign ownership, domestic banks, Low Income Developing Countries,

We study how foreign bank penetration affects financial sector development in poor countries. A theoretical model shows that when foreign banks are better at monitoring highend customers than domestic banks, their...

Remittances, Financial Development, and Growth

Remittances, Financial Development, and Growth »

Volume/Issue: 2005/234

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Marta Ruiz-Arranz , and Paola Giuliano

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862539.001

ISBN: 9781451862539

Keywords: financial development, growth, system GMM, impact of remittances, migration, remittance, statistics, Economic Growth of Open Economies,

There has been little systematic empirical study on the relationship between remittances and growth. This paper attempts to examine this relationship. Using a newly constructed crosscountry of data series for remit...

Why Do Emerging Economies Borrow in Foreign Currency?

Why Do Emerging Economies Borrow in Foreign Currency? »

Volume/Issue: 2003/177

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Olivier Jeanne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451858891.001

ISBN: 9781451858891

Keywords: Liability Dollarization, Monetary Credibility, currency debt, foreign currency, domestic currency, currency composition, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration,

This paper explores the hypothesis that the dollarization of liabilities in emerging market economies is the result of a lack of monetary credibility. I present a model in which firms choose the currency compositio...

Reserve Adequacy in Emerging Market Economics

Reserve Adequacy in Emerging Market Economics »

Volume/Issue: 2001/143

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451856347.001

ISBN: 9781451856347

Keywords: Reserves, vulnerability, capital flight, exchange rate, currency board, external debt, exchange rates, foreign exchange

This paper analyzes reserve adequacy in emerging market countries. It argues that the old rule of thumb of maintaining reserves equivalent to three months of imports has become obsolete and that, instead, a new ben...

Sectorial Macroeconomic Interdependencies
			: Evidence for Latin America, East Asia and Europe

Sectorial Macroeconomic Interdependencies : Evidence for Latin America, East Asia and Europe »

Volume/Issue: 1999/11

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Norman Loayza , J. Lopez , and Angel Ubide

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451842760.001

ISBN: 9781451842760

Keywords: International Comovements, Currency Areas, Error Components Models, common, output growth, andean pact, trade integration, regional trade

This paper analyzes common economic patterns across countries and economic sectors in Latin America, East Asia and Europe for the period 1970–94 by means of an error-components model that decomposes real val...

Are Business Cycles Different in Asia and Latin America?

Are Business Cycles Different in Asia and Latin America? »

Volume/Issue: 1997/9

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alexander Hoffmaister , and Jorge Roldos

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451927313.001

ISBN: 9781451927313

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, terms of trade, exchange rate fluctuations, nominal exchange rate

This paper compares business cycles in Asia and in Latin America using structural vector autoregression analysis with panel data. The evidence for countries in these regions suggests that (i) the main source of out...

Current Account Sustainability
			: Selected East Asian and Latin American Experiences

Current Account Sustainability : Selected East Asian and Latin American Experiences »

Volume/Issue: 1996/110

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Assaf Razin , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451853292.001

ISBN: 9781451853292

Keywords: current account, current account deficits, capital inflows, external debt, capital flows

A number of developing countries have run large and persistent current account deficits in both the late seventies/early eighties and in the early nineties, raising the issue of whether these persistent imbalances...

Improving the Estimation Methodology of Monthly Data in Direction of Trade Statistics

Improving the Estimation Methodology of Monthly Data in Direction of Trade Statistics »

Volume/Issue: 1994/142

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Xiaoning Gong

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451927467.001

ISBN: 9781451927467

Keywords: world trade, trade data, trade partners, trade figures, trade partner

The quality of the estimated data in DOTS depends on the availability and accuracy of direction of trade reports and the estimation methodology. Because of the low coverage of monthly reporting, the estimating proc...