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Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: China at the Threshold of a Market Economy

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Michael Bell , Kalpana Kochhar , and Hoe Khor

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 June 1993

ISBN: 9781557753496

Keywords: foreign trade, foreign investment, regulatory framework, foreign exchange, economic zones

This paper reviews China's experience with market-oriented reform since 1978, including domestic reforms, the opening of the economy to foreign trade and investment, and the decentralization of decision making. It...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: World Economic Outlook, September 2003 : Public Debt in Emerging Markets

Series: World Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2003

ISBN: 9781589062832

Keywords: debt, public debt, exchange rate, external debt, interest

The World Economic Outlook, published twice a year in English, French, Spanish, and Arabic, presents IMF staff economists' analyses of global economic developments during the near and medium term. Chapters give an...

Reserve Adequacy in Emerging Market Economics

Reserve Adequacy in Emerging Market Economics »

Volume/Issue: 2001/143

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451856347.001

ISBN: 9781451856347

Keywords: Reserves, vulnerability, capital flight, exchange rate, currency board, external debt, exchange rates, foreign exchange

This paper analyzes reserve adequacy in emerging market countries. It argues that the old rule of thumb of maintaining reserves equivalent to three months of imports has become obsolete and that, instead, a new ben...

Market-Oriented Reform of Foreign Trade in Planned Economies

Market-Oriented Reform of Foreign Trade in Planned Economies »

Volume/Issue: 1990/28

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 1990

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451981131.001

ISBN: 9781451981131

Keywords: foreign trade, exchange rate, foreign exchange, domestic prices, exchange rate system

This paper reviews the main features of market-oriented foreign trade reforms in planned economies. It considers reform initiatives aimed at expanding enterprise autonomy and breaking up the state monopoly of forei...

China's Growing Influence on Asian Financial Markets

China's Growing Influence on Asian Financial Markets »

Volume/Issue: 2016/173

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Serkan Arslanalp , Wei Liao , Shi Piao , and Dulani Seneviratne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475525137.001

ISBN: 9781475525137

Keywords: China, Spillovers, Equity markets, Foreign Exchange Markets

This paper finds that financial spillovers from China to regional markets are on the rise. The main transmission channel appears to be trade linkages, although direct financial linkages are playing an increasing ro...

Real Effects of Common Currencies in East Asia

Real Effects of Common Currencies in East Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2007/166

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Kazuko Shirono

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451867305.001

ISBN: 9781451867305

Keywords: Currency Union, Gravity Model, exchange rate, bilateral trade, currency unions, trade costs, exchange rate policies,

Since the 1997 Asian currency crisis, new interest has emerged in the formation of a common currency area in East Asia. This paper provides estimates of trade and welfare effects of East Asian currency unions, usin...

Estimating China's "Equilibrium" Real Exchange Rate

Estimating China's "Equilibrium" Real Exchange Rate »

Volume/Issue: 2005/202

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Xiangming Li , and Steven Dunaway

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862218.001

ISBN: 9781451862218

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, current account balance, trade model, balance of payments

The number of studies attempting to estimate the "equilibrium" real value of China's currency has proliferated in recent years as the country's presence in world markets has grown. These studies have sought to esta...

Trade Sensitivity to Exchange Rates in the Context of Intra-Industry Trade

Trade Sensitivity to Exchange Rates in the Context of Intra-Industry Trade »

Volume/Issue: 2008/134

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yoko Oguro , Kyoji Fukao , and Yougesh Khatri

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451869934.001

ISBN: 9781451869934

Keywords: Intra-industry trade, exchange rate, industry trade, elasticity of substitution, exchange rate movements,

This paper theoretically and empirically investigates export sensitivity to exchange rates in the context of intra-industry trade (IIT). It is assumed that more IIT implies a smaller elasticity of substitution amon...

The Russian Financial Crisis and its Consequences for Central Asia

The Russian Financial Crisis and its Consequences for Central Asia »

Volume/Issue: 2001/169

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Gonzalo Pastor , and Tatiana Damjanovic

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451858341.001

ISBN: 9781451858341

Keywords: Russian financial crisis, external debt issues, exchange rate, foreign exchange, exchange rates, external debt, exchange rate flexibility, Studies of Particular Policy Episodes, Kyrgyzstan,

This paper reviews the economic conditions in central Asia at the time of the Russian financial crisis of August 1998; the channels by which the crisis was transmitted to the central Asian region; and the policy re...

Exchange Rate Volatility Under Peg
			: Do Trade Patterns Matter?

Exchange Rate Volatility Under Peg : Do Trade Patterns Matter? »

Volume/Issue: 2012/73

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Constant Lonkeng Ngouana

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475502251.001

ISBN: 9781475502251

Keywords: Basket peg, hard peg, exchange rate volatility, WAEMU, exchange rate, effective exchange rate, trading partners, nominal effective exchange rate, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions,

This paper assesses the role of trade patterns in shaping the volatility of the effective exchange rate under two alternative peg regimes: a hard peg to a single currency and a peg to a basket of currencies. I link...