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Exchange Rate Assessments
			: CGER Methodologies

Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066380.084

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The rapid increase in international trade and financial integration over the past decade and the growing importance of emerging markets in world trade and GDP have inspired the IMF to place stronger emphasis on mul...

Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region

Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Takatoshi Ito , Tamim Bayoumi , Peter Isard , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756008.084

ISBN: 9781557756008

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, fdi, real exchange rate, real exchange rates

The 18 members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (APEC) encompass not only a wide geographic area but also broad differences in stages of economic development, including among them some of the fastes...

Monetary and Exchange System Reforms in China
			: An Experiment in Gradualism

Monetary and Exchange System Reforms in China : An Experiment in Gradualism »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Marc Quintyn , Bernard Laurens , Hassanali Mehran , and Tom Nordman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557755629.084

ISBN: 9781557755629

Keywords: foreign exchange, central bank, monetary policy, bonds, financial sector

In 1978, China embarked on a gradual but far-reaching reform of its economic system. This paper focuses on the achievements so far in reforming the financial sector, the legal framework for financial transactions,...

China at the Threshold of a Market Economy

China at the Threshold of a Market Economy »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Michael Bell , Kalpana Kochhar , and Hoe Khor

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 June 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557753496.084

ISBN: 9781557753496

Keywords: foreign trade, foreign investment, regulatory framework, foreign exchange, economic zones

This paper reviews China's experience with market-oriented reform since 1978, including domestic reforms, the opening of the economy to foreign trade and investment, and the decentralization of decision making. It...

Hong Kong, China
			: Growth, Structural Change, and Economic Stability During the Transition

Hong Kong, China : Growth, Structural Change, and Economic Stability During the Transition »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Dubravko Mihaljek , and John Dodsworth

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 September 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756725.084

ISBN: 9781557756725

Keywords: banking, law, monetary authority, foreign exchange, banking system

This paper provides a detailed account of Hong Kong on the eve of its reintegration into China as a special administrative region. It analyzes recent economic development and provides a clear overview of Hong Kong'...

Economic Reform in China
			: A New Phase

Economic Reform in China : A New Phase »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): David Burton , Wanda Tseng , Kalpana Kochhar , Hoe Khor , and Dubravko Mihaljek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557754219.084

ISBN: 9781557754219

Keywords: foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy, banking, tax administration

China's economic performance hs been remarkable since the the reform process began 15 years ago. Notwithstanding the achievements that have been made, a number of serious problems remain. This papers discusses the...

China's Growth and Integration into the World Economy
			: Prospects and Challenges

China's Growth and Integration into the World Economy : Prospects and Challenges »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eswar Prasad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 June 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062580.084

ISBN: 9781589062580

Keywords: Economic growth, Development, Trade, exchange rate, inflation, real exchange rate, employment, unemployment

China's transformation into a dynamic private-sector-led economy and its integration into the world economy have been among the most dramatic global economic developments of recent decades. This paper provides an o...

Currency Convertibility and the Transformation of Centrally Planned Economies

Currency Convertibility and the Transformation of Centrally Planned Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Joshua Greene , and Peter Isard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1991

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557752147.084

ISBN: 9781557752147

Keywords: Centrally planned economies, current account, exchange rate, current account convertibility, foreign exchange, capital account

This paper examines the problems in establishing currency convertibility- and the optimal timing- in formerly planned economies making the transition to market-oriented systems....

External Performance in Low-Income Countries

External Performance in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350536.084

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

Assessments of exchange rate misalignments and external imbalances for low-income countries are challenging because methodologies developed for advanced and emerging economies cannot be automatically applied to poo...

I Overview

I Overview »

Source: Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

Exchange rate surveillance has always been at the core of the IMF’s responsibilities. Throughout its existence, the Fund has striven to strengthen its framework for assessing exchange rates, adapting it to u...