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4. Special Drawing Rights

4. Special Drawing Rights »

Source: IMF Financial Operations 2015

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2015

ISBN: 9781513549897

Keywords: interest, lending, debt, reserve, income

Special drawing rights (SDRs) were created in 1969 as an international reserve asset to supplement other reserve assets whose growth was inadequate to finance the expansion of international trade and finance...

2. Nonconcessional Financial Operations

2. Nonconcessional Financial Operations »

Source: IMF Financial Operations 2015

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2015

ISBN: 9781513549897

Keywords: interest, lending, debt, reserve, income

The IMF resources are held in the General Department, which consists of three separate accounts: the General Resources Account (GRA), the Special Disbursement Account (SDA), and the Investment Account (IA)....

3. Financial Assistance for Low-Income Countries

3. Financial Assistance for Low-Income Countries »

Source: IMF Financial Operations 2015

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2015

ISBN: 9781513549897

Keywords: interest, lending, debt, reserve, income

The IMF’s financial assistance for low-income countries (LICs) is composed of concessional loans and debt relief. Concessional lending began in the 1970s and has expanded since. In July 2009, the IM...

Political Institutions, State Building, and Tax Capacity

Political Institutions, State Building, and Tax Capacity »

Source: Political Institutions, State Building, and Tax Capacity : Crossing the Tipping Point

Volume/Issue: 2016/233

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Vitor Gaspar , Laura Jaramillo , and Philippe Wingender

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 December 2016

ISBN: 9781475558142

Keywords: Nigeria, Political economy, Income taxes, Taxation, Tax evasion, Sub-Saharan Africa, Tax administration, Spain, Western Hemisphere, China

An empirical finding by Gaspar, Jaramillo and Wingender (2016) shows that once countries cross a tax-to-GDP threshold of around 12¾ percent, real GDP per capita increases sharply and in a sustained manner over the...

The Rising Resilience of Emerging Market and Developing Economies

The Rising Resilience of Emerging Market and Developing Economies »

Source: The Rising Resilience of Emerging Market and Developing Economies

Volume/Issue: 2012/300

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Abdul Abiad , John Bluedorn , Jaime Guajardo , and Petia Topalova

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 December 2012

ISBN: 9781475584851

Keywords: low-income countries, growth, expansion, recovery, inflation, external shocks, domestic shocks, trade openness, low inflation, General

Economic performance in many emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs) improved substantially over the past twenty years. The past decade was particularly good-for the first time EMDEs spent more time in exp...

7 Trade Elasticities and the Exchange Rate

7 Trade Elasticities and the Exchange Rate »

Source: External Performance in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

Chapters 1 and 2 of this paper discussed the macrobalance approach, which is one method a researcher can use to determine the extent to which a country’s current account balance deviates from it...

6 Import and Export Elasticities

6 Import and Export Elasticities »

Source: External Performance in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

This chapter sets out the details of a methodology that can be used to calculate export supply and import demand elasticities without using econometrics. There is a long tradition in estimating trade elastic...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

The sizeable increase in income inequality experienced in advanced economies and many parts of the world since the 1990s and the severe consequences of the global economic and financial crisis have brought distribu...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Ruud Mooij , Sanjeev Gupta , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 September 2015

ISBN: 9781513567754

Keywords: income, tax, taxes, revenue, health

The sizeable increase in income inequality experienced in advanced economies and many parts of the world since the 1990s and the severe consequences of the global economic and financial crisis have brought distribu...