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I. Overview

I. Overview »

Source: Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Takatoshi Ito , Tamim Bayoumi , Peter Isard , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 1996

ISBN: 9781557756008

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, fdi, real exchange rate, real exchange rates

The 18 members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (APEC) encompass both a wide geographic area and extensive differences in stages of economic development. At the same time, most of the APEC re...

III. International Trade and Real Exchange Rates

III. International Trade and Real Exchange Rates »

Source: Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Takatoshi Ito , Tamim Bayoumi , Peter Isard , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 1996

ISBN: 9781557756008

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, fdi, real exchange rate, real exchange rates

The real exchange rate is one of the key relative prices in an economy, defining the rate of exchange between domestic goods and their foreign counterparts. As a result, changes in the exchange rate have eco...

II Macroeconomic Balance Approach

II Macroeconomic Balance Approach »

Source: Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The macroeconomic balance approach to exchange rate assessments consists of three steps. First, an equilibrium relationship between current account balances and a set of fundamentals is estimated with panel...

IV. Foreign Direct Investment and the Exchange Rate

IV. Foreign Direct Investment and the Exchange Rate »

Source: Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Takatoshi Ito , Tamim Bayoumi , Peter Isard , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 1996

ISBN: 9781557756008

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, fdi, real exchange rate, real exchange rates

Foreign direct investment (FDI) represents the acquisition by foreign residents of a controlling claim on firms (through equity) or on real estate, or further investment in an enterprise so controlled....

II. Long-Run Movements in Real Exchange Rates

II. Long-Run Movements in Real Exchange Rates »

Source: Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Takatoshi Ito , Tamim Bayoumi , Peter Isard , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 1996

ISBN: 9781557756008

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, fdi, real exchange rate, real exchange rates

Economists have shown little ability to explain exchange rate movements from day to day, month to month, or even year to year. As revealed by several extensive studies undertaken in the early 1980s, which fo...

III Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate Approach

III Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate Approach »

Source: Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The reduced-form equilibrium real exchange rate (ERER) approach to exchange rate assessment consists of three steps. First, panel regression techniques are used to estimate an equilibrium relationship betwee...

Fixed or Flexible? Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990s

Fixed or Flexible? Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990s »

Source: Fixed or Flexible? Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990s

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): Jahangir Aziz , and Francesco Caramazza

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 April 1998

ISBN: 9781455220038

Keywords: exchange rate, capital inflows, exchange rates, flexible exchange rate, exchange rate arrangements

Analysts agree that “getting the exchange rate right” is essential for economic stability and growth in developing countries. Over the past two decades, many developing countries ha...

Fixed or Flexible?: Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990s

Fixed or Flexible?: Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990s »

Source: Fixed or Flexible : Getting the Exchange Rate Right in the 1990s

Series: Economic Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 April 1998

ISBN: 9781557756923

Keywords: exchange rate, capital inflows, exchange rates, flexible exchange rate, exchange rate arrangements

Analysts agree that “getting the exchange rate right” is essential for economic stability and growth in developing countries. Over the past two decades, many developing countries have shifted away from fixed...

V Medium-Term Fiscal Challenges

V Medium-Term Fiscal Challenges »

Source: China's Growth and Integration into the World Economy : Prospects and Challenges

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eswar Prasad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 June 2004

ISBN: 9781589062580

Keywords: Economic growth, Development, Trade, exchange rate, inflation, real exchange rate, employment, unemployment

China’s current fiscal position appears relatively sound. Both its overall budget deficit (3 percent of GDP in 2003) and debt as a ratio to GDP (about 26 percent in 2003) compare well with those of a group o...

VII Banking Sector Developments

VII Banking Sector Developments »

Source: China's Growth and Integration into the World Economy : Prospects and Challenges

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eswar Prasad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 June 2004

ISBN: 9781589062580

Keywords: Economic growth, Development, Trade, exchange rate, inflation, real exchange rate, employment, unemployment

An effective banking sector is essential for promoting financial intermediation and the efficient allocation of resources. In China, this is especially true given the high saving and investment rates, and th...