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VI State Enterprise Reform

VI State Enterprise Reform »

Source: Economic Reform in China : A New Phase

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): David Burton , Wanda Tseng , Kalpana Kochhar , Hoe Khor , and Dubravko Mihaljek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1994

ISBN: 9781557754219

Keywords: foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy, banking, tax administration

Notwithstanding the experiments with enterprise reforms undertaken since the early 1980s, deep structural problems remain in the SOE sector. 79 It is increasingly recognized that...

III. International Trade and Real Exchange Rates

III. International Trade and Real Exchange Rates »

Source: Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Takatoshi Ito , Tamim Bayoumi , Peter Isard , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 1996

ISBN: 9781557756008

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, fdi, real exchange rate, real exchange rates

The real exchange rate is one of the key relative prices in an economy, defining the rate of exchange between domestic goods and their foreign counterparts. As a result, changes in the exchange rate have eco...

I Introduction

I Introduction »

Source: Capital Flows in the APEC Region

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Carmen Reinhart , and Mohsin Khan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 1995

ISBN: 9781557754660

Keywords: capital inflows, capital flows, bond, bonds, bond issues

The developing economies of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (APEC) have been the recipients of a considerable volume of capital inflows in the 1990s. 1 For example,...

I. Overview

I. Overview »

Source: Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Takatoshi Ito , Tamim Bayoumi , Peter Isard , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 1996

ISBN: 9781557756008

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, fdi, real exchange rate, real exchange rates

The 18 members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (APEC) encompass both a wide geographic area and extensive differences in stages of economic development. At the same time, most of the APEC re...

II Macroeconomic Balance Approach

II Macroeconomic Balance Approach »

Source: Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The macroeconomic balance approach to exchange rate assessments consists of three steps. First, an equilibrium relationship between current account balances and a set of fundamentals is estimated with panel...

IV. Foreign Direct Investment and the Exchange Rate

IV. Foreign Direct Investment and the Exchange Rate »

Source: Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Takatoshi Ito , Tamim Bayoumi , Peter Isard , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 1996

ISBN: 9781557756008

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, fdi, real exchange rate, real exchange rates

Foreign direct investment (FDI) represents the acquisition by foreign residents of a controlling claim on firms (through equity) or on real estate, or further investment in an enterprise so controlled....

IV Risks of Deflation

IV Risks of Deflation »

Source: Deflation : Determinants, Risks, and Policy Options

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Taimur Baig , Jörg Decressin , Tarhan Feyzioglu , Manmohan Kumar , and Chris Faulkner-MacDonagh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 2003

ISBN: 9781589062276

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, aggregate demand, money supply, low inflation

This section provides an assessment of conjunctural deflation risks in the world economy. It shows that deflationary pressures have risen in several countries, and that the susceptibility to deflation is hig...

II. Long-Run Movements in Real Exchange Rates

II. Long-Run Movements in Real Exchange Rates »

Source: Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Takatoshi Ito , Tamim Bayoumi , Peter Isard , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 1996

ISBN: 9781557756008

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, fdi, real exchange rate, real exchange rates

Economists have shown little ability to explain exchange rate movements from day to day, month to month, or even year to year. As revealed by several extensive studies undertaken in the early 1980s, which fo...

VI Fiscal Federalism

VI Fiscal Federalism »

Source: China's Growth and Integration into the World Economy : Prospects and Challenges

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eswar Prasad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 June 2004

ISBN: 9781589062580

Keywords: Economic growth, Development, Trade, exchange rate, inflation, real exchange rate, employment, unemployment

The increased decentralization of intergovernmental fiscal relations since the early 1980s has played an important role in supporting the process of transition to a market economy and promoting growth in Chi...

IV Work Programs of Other Institutions

IV Work Programs of Other Institutions »

Source: Macroprudential Indicators of Financial System Soundness

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Paul Hilbers , Alfredo Leone , Mahinder Gill , and Owen Evens

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2000

ISBN: 9781557758910

Keywords: financial institutions, banking, financial system, financial sector, standards

In response to the recent crises, many institutions have initiated or intensified work on developing macroprudential indicators and macroprudential analysis capabilities. A selection of these efforts is summ...