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Military Expenditures 1972-1990

Military Expenditures 1972-1990 »

Source: Military Expenditures 1972-1990 : The Reasons Behind the Post-1985 Fall in World Military Spending

Volume/Issue: 1993/18

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daniel Hewitt

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1993

ISBN: 9781451843590

Keywords: military, military expenditures, expenditures, military spending, military expenditure

World military expenditures have fallen by over 20 percent in proportion to GDP from 1985 to 1990. This study examines the determinants of military expenditures in 125 countries during 1972-90 to ascertain what fac...

Bivariate Assessments of Real Exchange Rates Using PPP Data

Bivariate Assessments of Real Exchange Rates Using PPP Data »

Source: Bivariate Assessments of Real Exchange Rates Using PPP Data

Volume/Issue: 2008/153

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Juan Zalduendo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2008

ISBN: 9781451870114

Keywords: Real exchange rate, exchange rate, real exchange rates

This paper focuses on assessments of real exchange rates using PPP data and examines their limitations when these are based exclusively on bivariate estimations. It begins by presenting an analytical framework of t...

Exchange Rate Volatility Under Peg

Exchange Rate Volatility Under Peg »

Source: Exchange Rate Volatility Under Peg : Do Trade Patterns Matter?

Volume/Issue: 2012/73

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Constant Lonkeng Ngouana

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

ISBN: 9781475502251

Keywords: Basket peg, hard peg, exchange rate volatility, WAEMU, exchange rate, effective exchange rate, trading partners, nominal effective exchange rate, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions,

This paper assesses the role of trade patterns in shaping the volatility of the effective exchange rate under two alternative peg regimes: a hard peg to a single currency and a peg to a basket of currencies. I link...

Cotton Sector Strategies in West and Central Africa

Cotton Sector Strategies in West and Central Africa »

Source: Cotton Sector Strategies in West and Central Africa

Volume/Issue: 2002/173

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Louis Goreux , Paul Masson , Dhaneshwar Ghura , and Ousmane Badiane

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2002

ISBN: 9781451858648

Keywords: World Cotton Market, Cotton Subsidies, Cotton Sector Reform, West and Central Africa, cotton sector, farmers, crop, cotton production, farm, Market Structure and Pricing: Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection

Cotton production in West and Central Africa (WCA) has contributed to growth and poverty reduction. Recently, the objective of poverty alleviation has been adversely impacted by the downward pressures on world pric...

APPENDIX

APPENDIX »

Source: International Monetary Fund Handbook : Its Functions, Policies, and Operations

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Parmeshwar Ramlogan , and Bernhard Fritz-Krockow

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 April 2007

ISBN: 9781589066250

Keywords: balance of payments, debt relief, standards, credit tranche, hipc initiative

Appendix1. Quotas and Voting Power As of January 18, 2007 Countries...

Chapter 7. Strengthening the International Financial System

Chapter 7. Strengthening the International Financial System »

Source: International Monetary Fund Handbook : Its Functions, Policies, and Operations

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Parmeshwar Ramlogan , and Bernhard Fritz-Krockow

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 April 2007

ISBN: 9781589066250

Keywords: balance of payments, debt relief, standards, credit tranche, hipc initiative

Introduction The discussion of the reform of the international financial system rose to prominence in the late 1990s in the aftermath of the economic and financial crises in the Asia...

Chapter 1. Overview

Chapter 1. Overview »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2007 : Making the Global Economy Work for All

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 October 2007

ISBN: 9781589066632

Keywords: balance of payments, debt relief, financial sector, expenditures, exchange rate

During the financial year beginning on May 1, 2006, and ending on April 30, 2007, the Executive Board focused on adapting Fund policies and operations to better meet the evolving needs of the IMF’s member co...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 2007 : Making the Global Economy Work for All

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 October 2007

ISBN: 9781589066632

Keywords: balance of payments, debt relief, financial sector, expenditures, exchange rate

The Annual Report 2007 to the Board of Governors reviews the IMF's activities and policies during the financial year (May 1, 2006, through April 30, 2007). This year's Report has been streamlined and translated int...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: International Monetary Fund Handbook : Its Functions, Policies, and Operations

Series: Manuals & Guides

Author(s): Parmeshwar Ramlogan , and Bernhard Fritz-Krockow

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 April 2007

ISBN: 9781589066250

Keywords: balance of payments, debt relief, standards, credit tranche, hipc initiative

This paper describes the functions, policies, and operations of the IMF. The IMF is an independent international organization, and is a cooperative of 185 member countries, whose objective is to promote world econo...

Exchange Rate Volatility Under Peg
			: Do Trade Patterns Matter?

Exchange Rate Volatility Under Peg : Do Trade Patterns Matter? »

Volume/Issue: 2012/73

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Constant Lonkeng Ngouana

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475502251.001

ISBN: 9781475502251

Keywords: Basket peg, hard peg, exchange rate volatility, WAEMU, exchange rate, effective exchange rate, trading partners, nominal effective exchange rate, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions,

This paper assesses the role of trade patterns in shaping the volatility of the effective exchange rate under two alternative peg regimes: a hard peg to a single currency and a peg to a basket of currencies. I link...