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Middle East and Central Asia

Middle East and Central Asia »

Source: Middle East and Central Asia : A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts

Volume/Issue: 2016/151

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lisa Kolovich , and Sakina Shibuya

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 July 2016

ISBN: 9781475519983

Keywords: Gender budgeting; fiscal policy and administration; gender inequality; Middle East and Central Asia

Gender budgeting uses fiscal policies to promote gender equality and women's advancement, but is struggling to take hold in the Middle East and Central Asia. We provide an overview of two gender budgeting efforts i...

Spillover Effects of Exchange Rates

Spillover Effects of Exchange Rates »

Source: Spillover Effects of Exchange Rates : A Study of the Renminbi

Volume/Issue: 2012/88

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Arvind Subramanian , Prachi Mishra , and Aaditya Mattoo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

ISBN: 9781475502626

Keywords: spillover, exchange rate, exporter, exporters, real exchange rate, Country and Industry Studies of Trade, Economywide Country Studies: Asia including Middle East,

This paper estimates the impact of China's exchange rate changes on exports of competitor countries in third markets, which we call the "spillover effect". We use recent theory to develop an identification strategy...

Reserve Adequacy in Emerging Market Economics

Reserve Adequacy in Emerging Market Economics »

Source: Reserve Adequacy in Emerging Market Economics

Volume/Issue: 2001/143

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2001

ISBN: 9781451856347

Keywords: Reserves, vulnerability, capital flight, exchange rate, currency board, external debt, exchange rates, foreign exchange

This paper analyzes reserve adequacy in emerging market countries. It argues that the old rule of thumb of maintaining reserves equivalent to three months of imports has become obsolete and that, instead, a new ben...

Network Effects of International Shocks and Spillovers

Network Effects of International Shocks and Spillovers »

Source: Network Effects of International Shocks and Spillovers

Volume/Issue: 2015/149

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alexei Kireyev , and Andrei Leonidov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 July 2015

ISBN: 9781513542928

Keywords: shocks, spillover, network, balance of payments, imports, import, trading partners, Neural Networks and Related Topics, Country and Industry Studies of Trade, Open Economy Macroeconomics

This paper proposes a method for assessing international spillovers from nominal demand shocks. It quantifies the impact of a shock in one country on all other countries. The paper concludes that the network effect...

New Rates from New Weights

New Rates from New Weights »

Source: New Rates from New Weights

Volume/Issue: 2005/99

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2005

ISBN: 9781451861181

Keywords: Weight, effective exchange rate, exchange rate, exchange rates, real exchange rates, real effective exchange rate, Trade: General, International Finance: General,

This paper describes the result and the methodology of updating nominal and real effective exchange rate weights on the basis of trade data over 1999-2001. The underlying framework is an updated version of the IMF'...

Emerging Powers and Global Governance

Emerging Powers and Global Governance »

Source: Emerging Powers and Global Governance : Whither the IMF?

Volume/Issue: 2015/219

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rakesh Mohan , and Muneesh Kapur

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 October 2015

ISBN: 9781513557403

Keywords: Global Governance, quota, economy, economies, global economy, weight, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions, International Institutional Arrangements,

The governance structure in global bodies like the IMF continues to be disproportionally dominated by advanced economies. Sustained rapid growth in emerging and developing economies (EDEs) in the past 2-3 decades h...

Global Imbalances and External Adjustment after the Crisis

Global Imbalances and External Adjustment after the Crisis »

Source: Global Imbalances and External Adjustment after the Crisis

Volume/Issue: 2014/151

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philip Lane , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 August 2014

ISBN: 9781498339216

Keywords: Global crisis, Current account adjustment, current account, current account balance, current account balances,

This paper has two objectives. First, it reviews the recent dynamics of global imbalances (both 'flow' and 'stock' imbalances), with a special focus on the shifting position of Latin America in the global distribut...

Characterizing Exchange Rate Regimes in Post-Crisis East Asia

Characterizing Exchange Rate Regimes in Post-Crisis East Asia »

Source: Characterizing Exchange Rate Regimes in Post-Crisis East Asia

Volume/Issue: 2001/152

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Taimur Baig

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2001

ISBN: 9781451857092

Keywords: exchange rate regime, volatility, Asian crisis, exchange rate, exchange rates, random walk, exchange rate volatility, standard deviation, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions,

This paper examines the behavior of the exchange rates of selected emerging market East Asian economies in the aftermath of the Asian crisis. The results suggest that movements in the Asia-5 currencies (Indonesia,...

Towards a System of Multilateral Unit Labor Cost-Based Competitiveness Indicators for Advanced, Developing, and Transition Countries

Towards a System of Multilateral Unit Labor Cost-Based Competitiveness Indicators for Advanced, Developing, and Transition Countries »

Source: Towards a System of Multilateral Unit Labor Cost-Based Competitiveness Indicators for Advanced, Developing, and Transition Countries

Volume/Issue: 1997/151

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anthony Turner , and Stephen Golub

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 1997

ISBN: 9781451922882

Keywords: effective exchange rates, exchange rates, reer, unit labor costs, exchange rate

This paper attempts to extend the range of countries covered by the IMF’s multilateral real exchange rate indexes based on relative unit labor costs (REER-ULCs) in manufacturing. A data set was assembled tha...

Bivariate Assessments of Real Exchange Rates Using PPP Data

Bivariate Assessments of Real Exchange Rates Using PPP Data »

Source: Bivariate Assessments of Real Exchange Rates Using PPP Data

Volume/Issue: 2008/153

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Juan Zalduendo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2008

ISBN: 9781451870114

Keywords: Real exchange rate, exchange rate, real exchange rates

This paper focuses on assessments of real exchange rates using PPP data and examines their limitations when these are based exclusively on bivariate estimations. It begins by presenting an analytical framework of t...