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Forum: Many countries still lack a fully transparent budget process

Forum: Many countries still lack a fully transparent budget process »

Source: IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 03

Volume/Issue: 34/3

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 February 2005

ISBN: 9781451938302

Keywords: international monetary fund, financial stability, macroeconomic management, economic integration

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

Credit Growth in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia Region

Credit Growth in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia Region »

Source: Credit Growth in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia Region

Volume/Issue: 2008/184

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Joe Crowley

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2008

ISBN: 9781451870428

Keywords: Credit Growth, Oil Inflows, export growth, oil producers, oil export,

Rapid private sector credit growth in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia has been a result of strong economic growth, financial deepening, and banks’ willingness to explore consumer credit marke...

Export Credit Agencies, Trade Finance and South East Asia

Export Credit Agencies, Trade Finance and South East Asia »

Source: Export Credit Agencies, Trade Finance and South East Asia

Volume/Issue: 1998/175

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Malcolm Stephens

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1998

ISBN: 9781451976403

Keywords: Export credit agencies, trade finance, South East Asian countries, export credit, exporters, international financial, international financial institutions

This paper looks at the causes of the reduction in trade finance in South East Asian countries post-1997, with a particular focus on the role of export credit agencies. It concludes that while such agencies did not...

Growth Slowdowns and the Middle-Income Trap

Growth Slowdowns and the Middle-Income Trap »

Source: Growth Slowdowns and the Middle-Income Trap

Volume/Issue: 2013/71

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Shekhar Aiyar , Romain Duval , Damien Puy , Yiqun Wu , and Longmei Zhang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2013

ISBN: 9781484330647

Keywords: growth, slowdown, middle income trap, Bayesian Model Averaging, per capita income, export diversification, gdp per capita, trade openness, growth rates, Bayesian Analysis

The “middle-income trap” is the phenomenon of hitherto rapidly growing economies stagnating at middle-income levels and failing to graduate into the ranks of high-income countries. In this study we ex...

II Macroeconomic Balance Approach

II Macroeconomic Balance Approach »

Source: Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The macroeconomic balance approach to exchange rate assessments consists of three steps. First, an equilibrium relationship between current account balances and a set of fundamentals is estimated with panel...

III Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate Approach

III Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate Approach »

Source: Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The reduced-form equilibrium real exchange rate (ERER) approach to exchange rate assessment consists of three steps. First, panel regression techniques are used to estimate an equilibrium relationship betwee...