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II Macroeconomic Balance Approach

II Macroeconomic Balance Approach »

Source: Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The macroeconomic balance approach to exchange rate assessments consists of three steps. First, an equilibrium relationship between current account balances and a set of fundamentals is estimated with panel...

IV Risks of Deflation

IV Risks of Deflation »

Source: Deflation : Determinants, Risks, and Policy Options

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Taimur Baig , Jörg Decressin , Tarhan Feyzioglu , Manmohan Kumar , and Chris Faulkner-MacDonagh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 2003

ISBN: 9781589062276

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, aggregate demand, money supply, low inflation

This section provides an assessment of conjunctural deflation risks in the world economy. It shows that deflationary pressures have risen in several countries, and that the susceptibility to deflation is hig...

I. VAT Policy Issues: Structure, Regressivity, Inflation, and Exports

I. VAT Policy Issues: Structure, Regressivity, Inflation, and Exports »

Source: Value-Added Tax : Administrative and Policy Issues

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alan Tait

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1991

ISBN: 9781557751843

Keywords: vat, tax administration, tax return, sales tax, tax department

Alan A. Tait This chapter discusses the major policy issues involved when considering a VAT. It briefly reviews the reasons why the VAT is chosen as the main sales tax and why...

V. VAT Organizational Issues

V. VAT Organizational Issues »

Source: Value-Added Tax : Administrative and Policy Issues

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alan Tait

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1991

ISBN: 9781557751843

Keywords: vat, tax administration, tax return, sales tax, tax department

Graham Holland This chapter discusses some of the main organizational issues to be considered in the introduction of a VAT—staffing, training, and staff manuals....

IV Work Programs of Other Institutions

IV Work Programs of Other Institutions »

Source: Macroprudential Indicators of Financial System Soundness

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Paul Hilbers , Alfredo Leone , Mahinder Gill , and Owen Evens

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2000

ISBN: 9781557758910

Keywords: financial institutions, banking, financial system, financial sector, standards

In response to the recent crises, many institutions have initiated or intensified work on developing macroprudential indicators and macroprudential analysis capabilities. A selection of these efforts is summ...

7 Trade Elasticities and the Exchange Rate

7 Trade Elasticities and the Exchange Rate »

Source: External Performance in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

Chapters 1 and 2 of this paper discussed the macrobalance approach, which is one method a researcher can use to determine the extent to which a country’s current account balance deviates from it...

6 Import and Export Elasticities

6 Import and Export Elasticities »

Source: External Performance in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

This chapter sets out the details of a methodology that can be used to calculate export supply and import demand elasticities without using econometrics. There is a long tradition in estimating trade elastic...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Effects of Financial Globalization on Developing Countries : Some Empirical Evidence

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ayhan Kose , Kenneth Rogoff , Eswar Prasad , and Shang-Jin Wei

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 September 2003

ISBN: 9781589062214

Keywords: Developing countries, capital flows, financial integration, globalization, capital inflows, financial globalization

This study provides a candid, systematic, and critical review of recent evidence on this complex subject. Based on a review of the literature and some new empirical evidence, it finds that (1) in spite of an appare...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Deflation : Determinants, Risks, and Policy Options

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Taimur Baig , Jörg Decressin , Tarhan Feyzioglu , Manmohan Kumar , and Chris Faulkner-MacDonagh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 2003

ISBN: 9781589062276

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, aggregate demand, money supply, low inflation

Deflation can be costly and difficult to anticipate, and concerns of a generalized decline in prices in both industrial and emerging market economies have increased recently. This paper investigates the causes and...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Macroprudential Indicators of Financial System Soundness

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Paul Hilbers , Alfredo Leone , Mahinder Gill , and Owen Evens

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2000

ISBN: 9781557758910

Keywords: financial institutions, banking, financial system, financial sector, standards

Following the severe financial crises of the 1990s, identifying and assessing financial sector vulnerabilities has become a key priority of the international community. The costly disruptions in global markets unde...