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Local Government Financing Platforms in China: A Fortune or Misfortune?1

Local Government Financing Platforms in China: A Fortune or Misfortune?1 »

Source: Local Government Financing Platforms in China : A Fortune or Misfortune?

Volume/Issue: 2013/243

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yinqiu Lu , and Tao Sun

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 December 2013

ISBN: 9781475599671

Keywords: local government, capital markets, local governments, local government borrowing, local government debt, local government revenue, General, and capital markets,

China's rapid credit expansion in 2009-10 brought local government financing platforms (LGFPs) into the spotlight. This paper discusses their function, reasons behind their recent expansion, and risks they are posi...

Military Expenditure

Military Expenditure »

Source: Military Expenditure : International Comparison of Trends

Volume/Issue: 1991/54

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daniel Hewitt

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1991

ISBN: 9781451847420

Keywords: military, military expenditures, expenditures, expenditure, military expenditure

This paper analyzes trends in world military expenditure by examining the shares of different country groups and the ratio to GDP of individual nations. The coverage is military expenditures in 125 countries from 1...

Military Expenditures 1972-1990

Military Expenditures 1972-1990 »

Source: Military Expenditures 1972-1990 : The Reasons Behind the Post-1985 Fall in World Military Spending

Volume/Issue: 1993/18

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daniel Hewitt

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 1993

ISBN: 9781451843590

Keywords: military, military expenditures, expenditures, military spending, military expenditure

World military expenditures have fallen by over 20 percent in proportion to GDP from 1985 to 1990. This study examines the determinants of military expenditures in 125 countries during 1972-90 to ascertain what fac...

Military Expenditure

Military Expenditure »

Source: Military Expenditure : Econometric Testing of Economic and Political Influences

Volume/Issue: 1991/53

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daniel Hewitt

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1991

ISBN: 9781451847291

Keywords: military, military expenditures, expenditures, expenditure, military expenditure

Econometric results from an analysis of the determinants of military expenditure in 125 countries during 1972-88 are presented. The dependent variable is the ratio of military expenditure to GDP; included among the...

Country Abbreviations

Country Abbreviations »

Source: Fiscal Monitor, October 2016 : Debt: Use It Wisely

Series: Fiscal Monitor

Author(s): Marialuz Moreno Badia

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2016

ISBN: 9781513560601

Keywords: Debt, deleveraging, debt overhang, fiscal policy, financial crisis, recovery, debt levels, advanced economies, emerging market economies, private-sector debt

Code Country name AFG Afghanistan...

Methodological and Statistical Appendix

Methodological and Statistical Appendix »

Source: Fiscal Monitor, October 2016 : Debt: Use It Wisely

Series: Fiscal Monitor

Author(s): Marialuz Moreno Badia

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2016

ISBN: 9781513560601

Keywords: Debt, deleveraging, debt overhang, fiscal policy, financial crisis, recovery, debt levels, advanced economies, emerging market economies, private-sector debt

This appendix comprises four sections. Data and Conventions provides a general description of the data and conventions used to calculate economy group composites. Fiscal Policy Assumptions summarizes the cou...

Chapter 6. Local Government Finances and Fiscal Risks

Chapter 6. Local Government Finances and Fiscal Risks »

Source: Modernizing China : Investing in Soft Infrastructure

Series: Books

Author(s): W. Raphael Lam , Markus Rodlauer , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 January 2017

ISBN: 9781513539942

Keywords: Economic reforms, reforms, economic success, growth model, policy frameworks, markets, market economy, soft infrastructure, institutions, rebalancing

Local governments play a critical role in executing fiscal policies in China. Aside from providing basic public services, they undertook sizable public investment that has contributed to remarkable growth. M...

Chapter 8. Capital Account Opening and Capital Flow Management

Chapter 8. Capital Account Opening and Capital Flow Management »

Source: Modernizing China : Investing in Soft Infrastructure

Series: Books

Author(s): W. Raphael Lam , Markus Rodlauer , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 January 2017

ISBN: 9781513539942

Keywords: Economic reforms, reforms, economic success, growth model, policy frameworks, markets, market economy, soft infrastructure, institutions, rebalancing

China is the world’s leading trading nation. Yet, remarkably, it is much less well integrated with the global financial system, and the country’s extensive controls on international capital flows are an impo...

Chapter 2. Modernizing the Tax Policy Regime

Chapter 2. Modernizing the Tax Policy Regime »

Source: Modernizing China : Investing in Soft Infrastructure

Series: Books

Author(s): W. Raphael Lam , Markus Rodlauer , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 January 2017

ISBN: 9781513539942

Keywords: Economic reforms, reforms, economic success, growth model, policy frameworks, markets, market economy, soft infrastructure, institutions, rebalancing

Fiscal reform is integral to China’s broad reform plans and key for achieving more inclusive and sustainable growth. The 13th Five-Year Plan commits to deepening tax reforms to facilitate economic transition...

Chapter 1. Debt: Use It Wisely

Chapter 1. Debt: Use It Wisely »

Source: Fiscal Monitor, October 2016 : Debt: Use It Wisely

Series: Fiscal Monitor

Author(s): Marialuz Moreno Badia

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 October 2016

ISBN: 9781513560601

Keywords: Debt, deleveraging, debt overhang, fiscal policy, financial crisis, recovery, debt levels, advanced economies, emerging market economies, private-sector debt

Introduction The global gross debt of the nonfinancial sector has more than doubled in nominal terms since the turn of the century, reaching $152 trillion in 2015....