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I. VAT Policy Issues: Structure, Regressivity, Inflation, and Exports

I. VAT Policy Issues: Structure, Regressivity, Inflation, and Exports »

Source: Value-Added Tax : Administrative and Policy Issues

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alan Tait

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1991

ISBN: 9781557751843

Keywords: vat, tax administration, tax return, sales tax, tax department

Alan A. Tait This chapter discusses the major policy issues involved when considering a VAT. It briefly reviews the reasons why the VAT is chosen as the main sales tax and why...

III. Guidelines for Administering a VAT

III. Guidelines for Administering a VAT »

Source: Value-Added Tax : Administrative and Policy Issues

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alan Tait

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1991

ISBN: 9781557751843

Keywords: vat, tax administration, tax return, sales tax, tax department

Milka Casanegra de Jantscher and Carlos Silvani This chapter provides guidelines on some of the main issues of VAT administration, such as taxpayer identification, filing and...

IV Risks of Deflation

IV Risks of Deflation »

Source: Deflation : Determinants, Risks, and Policy Options

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Taimur Baig , Jörg Decressin , Tarhan Feyzioglu , Manmohan Kumar , and Chris Faulkner-MacDonagh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 2003

ISBN: 9781589062276

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, aggregate demand, money supply, low inflation

This section provides an assessment of conjunctural deflation risks in the world economy. It shows that deflationary pressures have risen in several countries, and that the susceptibility to deflation is hig...

V Policy Response

V Policy Response »

Source: Deflation : Determinants, Risks, and Policy Options

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Taimur Baig , Jörg Decressin , Tarhan Feyzioglu , Manmohan Kumar , and Chris Faulkner-MacDonagh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 2003

ISBN: 9781589062276

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, aggregate demand, money supply, low inflation

Given the costs of deflation, it is desirable to prevent it from taking root, rather than deal with it once it has become entrenched. This is a particular challenge for policy in a low inflation environment....

II Macroeconomic Balance Approach

II Macroeconomic Balance Approach »

Source: Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The macroeconomic balance approach to exchange rate assessments consists of three steps. First, an equilibrium relationship between current account balances and a set of fundamentals is estimated with panel...

V. VAT Organizational Issues

V. VAT Organizational Issues »

Source: Value-Added Tax : Administrative and Policy Issues

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alan Tait

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 1991

ISBN: 9781557751843

Keywords: vat, tax administration, tax return, sales tax, tax department

Graham Holland This chapter discusses some of the main organizational issues to be considered in the introduction of a VAT—staffing, training, and staff manuals....

7 Trade Elasticities and the Exchange Rate

7 Trade Elasticities and the Exchange Rate »

Source: External Performance in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

Chapters 1 and 2 of this paper discussed the macrobalance approach, which is one method a researcher can use to determine the extent to which a country’s current account balance deviates from it...

6 Import and Export Elasticities

6 Import and Export Elasticities »

Source: External Performance in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

This chapter sets out the details of a methodology that can be used to calculate export supply and import demand elasticities without using econometrics. There is a long tradition in estimating trade elastic...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Monetary and Exchange System Reforms in China : An Experiment in Gradualism

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Marc Quintyn , Bernard Laurens , Hassanali Mehran , and Tom Nordman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 1996

ISBN: 9781557755629

Keywords: foreign exchange, central bank, monetary policy, bonds, financial sector

In 1978, China embarked on a gradual but far-reaching reform of its economic system. This paper focuses on the achievements so far in reforming the financial sector, the legal framework for financial transactions,...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Effects of Financial Globalization on Developing Countries : Some Empirical Evidence

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ayhan Kose , Kenneth Rogoff , Eswar Prasad , and Shang-Jin Wei

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 September 2003

ISBN: 9781589062214

Keywords: Developing countries, capital flows, financial integration, globalization, capital inflows, financial globalization

This study provides a candid, systematic, and critical review of recent evidence on this complex subject. Based on a review of the literature and some new empirical evidence, it finds that (1) in spite of an appare...