Information about Asia and the Pacific Asia y el Pacífico
Back Matter

Back Matter

International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
August 2006
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Information about Asia and the Pacific Asia y el Pacífico
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Tharman Shanmugaratnam

Tharman Shanmugaratnam is Minister for Education and Second Minister for Finance in the Singapore Cabinet.

Tharman spent much of his earlier professional career at the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), Singapore's central bank and financial regulator, where he was the Managing Director before he entered politics in 2001. He continues to serve on the Board of MAS, and sits on the Board of the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation. He is also Deputy Chairman of the National Research Foundation.

Tharman has been Member of Parliament since October 2001. After entering politics, he was appointed Senior Minister of State in the Ministry of Trade and Industry and in the Ministry of Education. He took office as Acting Minister for Education in August 2003, and subsequently as Minister for Education in August 2004. He was appointed Minister for Education and Second Minister for Finance in May 2006. Tharman is also Co-Chairman of the Singapore-Liaoning Economic and Trade Council, which was established in 2003 to advance stronger links between Singapore and Liaoning Province, China. He is Chairman of the Ong Teng Cheong Institute of Labour Studies, and serves as a Life Trustee of the Singapore Indian Development Association.

Tharman obtained undergraduate and masters degrees in economics from the London School of Economics and Cambridge University. He later obtained a masters degree in public administration from Harvard University, where he received the Littauer Fellow award. He was awarded the Singapore Public Administration Gold Medal in 1999.

He is married to Jane Yumiko Ittogi, a lawyer.

The Per Jacobsson Lectures

2006Asian Monetary Integration: Will It Ever Happen? Lecture by Tharman Shanmugaratnam (Singapore).
Competition Policy and Monetary Policy: A Comparative Perspective. Lecture by Mario Monti (Bern).
2005International Financial Institutions: Dealing with New Global Challenges. Lecture by Michel Camdessus.
2004The U.S. Current Account Deficit and the Global Economy. Lecture by Lawrence H. Summers.
Some New Directions for Financial Stability? Lecture by C.A.E. Goodhart, CBE (Zurich).
2003The Arab World: Performance and Prospects. Lecture by Abdlatif Yousef Al-Hamad (Dubai).
2002The Boom-Bust Capital Spending Cycle in the United States: Lessons Learned. Lecture by E. Gerald Corrigan.
Recent Emerging Market Crises: What Have We Learned? Lecture by Guillermo Ortiz (Basel).
2001No lecture took place due to the cancellation of the Annual Meetings of the IMF and the World Bank.
2000Ten Years On—Some Lessons from the Transition. Lecture by Josef ToSovsky (Prague).
Strengthening the Resilience of Financial Systems. Symposium panelists: Peter B. Kenen, Arminio Fraga, and Jacques de Larosiere (Lucerne).
1999The Past and Future of European IntegrationA Central Banker’s View. Lecture by Willem F. Duisenberg.
1998Managing the International Economy in the Age of Globalization. Lecture by Peter D. Sutherland.
1997Asian Monetary Cooperation. Lecture by Joseph C.K. Yam, CBE, JP (Hong Kong SAR).
1996Financing Development in a World of Private Capital Flows: The Challenge for International Financial Institutions in Working with the Private Sector. Lecture by Jacques de Larosière.
1995Economic Transformation: The Tasks Still Ahead. Symposium panelists: Jan Svejnar, Oleh Havrylyshyn, and Sergei K. Dubinin.
1994Central Banking in Transition. Lecture by Baron Alexandre Lamfalussy (London).
Capital Flows to Emerging Countries: Are They Sustainable? Lecture by Guillermo de la Dehesa (Madrid).
1993Latin America: Economic and Social Transition to the Twenty-First Century. Lecture by Enrique V. Iglesias.
1992A New Monetary Order for Europe. Lecture by Karl Otto Pöhl.
1991The Road to European Monetary Union: Lessons from the Bretton Woods Regime. Lecture by Alexander K. Swoboda (Basel).
Privatization: Financial Choices and Opportunities. Lecture by Amnuay Viravan (Bangkok).
1990The Triumph of Central Banking? Lecture by Paul A. Volcker.
1989Promoting Successful Adjustment: The Experience of Ghana. Lecture by J.L.S. Abbey.
Economic Restructuring in New Zealand Since 1984. Lecture by David Caygill.
1988The International Monetary System: The Next Twenty-Five Years. Symposium panelists: Sir Kit McMahon, Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa, and C. Fred Bergsten (Basel).
1987Interdependence: Vulnerability and Opportunity. Lecture by Sylvia Ostry.
1986The Emergence of Global Finance. Lecture by Yusuke Kashiwagi.
1985Do We Know Where We’re Going? Lecture by Sir Jeremy Morse (Seoul).
1984Economic Nationalism and International Interdependence: The Global Costs of National Choices. Lecture by Peter G. Peterson.
1983Developing a New International Monetary System: A Long-Term View. Lecture by H. Johannes Witteveen.
1982Monetary Policy: Finding a Place to Stand. Lecture by Gerald K. Bouey (Toronto).
1981Central Banking with the Benefit of Hindsight. Lecture by Jelle Zijlstra; commentary by Albert Adomakoh.
1980Reflections on the International Monetary System. Lecture by Guillaume Guindey; commentary by Charles A. Coombs (Basel).
1979The Anguish of Central Banking. Lecture by Arthur F. Burns; commentaries by Milutin Cirovic and Jacques J. Polak (Belgrade).
1978The International Capital Market and the International Monetary System. Lecture by Gabriel Hauge and Erik Hoffmeyer; commentary by Lord Roll of Ipsden.
1977The International Monetary System in Operation. Lectures by Wilfried Guth and Sir Arthur Lewis.
1976Why Banks Are Unpopular. Lecture by Guido Carli; commentary by Milton Gilbert (Basel).
1975Emerging Arrangements in International Payments: Public and Private. Lecture by Alfred Hayes; commentaries by Khodadad Farmanfarmaian, Carlos Massad, and Claudio Segré.
1974Steps to International Monetary Order. Lectures by Conrad J. Oort and Puey Ungphakorn; commentaries by Saburo Okita and William McChesney Martin (Tokyo).
1973Inflation and the International Monetary System. Lecture by Otmar Emminger; commentaries by Adolfo Diz and János Fekete (Basel).
1972The Monetary Crisis of 1971: The Lessons to Be Learned. Lecture by Henry C. Wallich; commentaries by C.J. Morse and I.G. Patel.
1971International Capital Movements: Past, Present, Future. Lecture by Sir Eric Roll; commentaries by Henry H. Fowler and Wilfried Guth.
1970Toward a World Central Bank? Lecture by William McChesney Martin; commentaries by Karl Blessing, Alfredo Machado Gómez, and Harry G. Johnson (Basel).
1969The Role of Monetary Gold over the Next Ten Years. Lecture by Alexandre Lam-falussy; commentaries by Wilfrid Baumgartner, Guido Carli, and L.K. Jha.
1968Central Banking and Economic Integration. Lecture by M.W. Holtrop; commentary by Lord Cromer (Stockholm).
1967Economic Development: The Banking Aspects. Lecture by David Rockefeller; commentaries by Felipe Herrera and Shigeo Horie (Rio de Janeiro).
1966The Role of the Central Banker Today. Lecture by Louis Rasminsky; commentaries by Donato Menichella, Stefano Siglienti, Marcus Wallenberg, and Franz Aschinger (Rome).
1965The Balance Between Monetary Policy and Other Instruments of Economic Policy in a Modern Society. Lectures by CD. Deshmukh and Robert V. Roosa.
1964Economic Growth and Monetary Stability. Lectures by Maurice Frere and Rodrigo Gomez (Basel).

The Per Jacobsson lectures are available on the Internet at which also contains further information on the Foundation. Copies of the Per Jacobsson lectures may be acquired without charge from the Secretary. Unless otherwise indicated, the lectures were delivered in Washington, D.C.

The Per Jacobsson Foundation

Founding Honorary Chairmen:Eugene R. Black
Marcus Wallenberg
Past Chairmen:W. Randolph Burgess
William McC. Martin
Sir Jeremy Morse
Jacques de Larosière
Past Presidents:Frank A. Southard, Jr.
Jacques J. Polak
Founding Sponsors
Hermann J. AbsViscount HarcourtJean Monnet
Roger AuboinGabriel HaugeWalter Muller
Wilfrid BaumgartnerCarl Otto HenriquesJuan Pardo Heeren
S. Clark BeiseM.W. HoltropFederico Pinedo
B.M. BirlaShigeo HorieAbdul Qadir
Rudolf BrinckmannClarence E. HunterSven Raab
Lord CobboldH.V.R. lengarDavid Rockefeller
Miguel CuadernoKaoru InouyeLord Salter
R.v. FieandtAlbert E. JanssenPierre-Paul Schweitzer
Maurice FrèreRaffaele MattioliSamuel Schweizer
E.C. FussellJJ. McElligottAllan Sproul
Aly GritlyJohan MelanderWilhelm Teufenstein
Eugenio GudinDonate MenichellaGraham Towers
Gottfried HaberlerEmmanuel MonickJoseph H. Willits
Board of Directors
Sir Andrew D. Crockett—Chairman of the Board
Abdlatif Y. Al-HamadMalcolm D. Knight
Nancy BirdsallHorst Köhler
Michel CamdessusEdwin M. Truman
E. Gerald CorriganLeo Van Houtven
Rodrigo de RatoMarcus Wallenberg
Shigemitsu Sugisaki
Leo Van HoutvenPresident
Graham HaccheVice-President and Secretary
Chris HemusTreasurer

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